inductive argument- teleological

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  • Inductive argument
    • Aquinas' fifth way.
      • Something that lacks intelligence cannot move towards fulfilling a useful end, unless something with intelligence has moved it.
        • A PEN: the pen itself has no intelligence and cannot work alone. the only way for it to work is for someone who has intelligence (human being) to use it for its function.
        • AN ARROW: alone cannot reach the target it needs to be fired by an archer. Relates this point to the natural laws of the universe.
          • This results in these laws to fulfil some purpose or end goal (their telos) but yet don't have the ability to think for themselves.
      • 'Therefore, some intelligent being exists by whom all natural things are directed to their end; and this being we call God.'
    • Paley's watch maker analogy.
      • Basis: if we were out walking and came across a rock we wouldn't question its existence as to why it is there.
        • However were we to discover a watch we wouldn't come to the same conclusion.
          • A watch has a very complex formation for it to be able to work, you have to create it perfectly so it can keep the correct time.
          • For the watch to be there you need a watch maker to make it like the universe it needs a greater as it is so complex.
          • Paley extends his point to say what if the watch was made by a machine, and that machine was made by a machine, eventually there would have been an original creator.
    • Tennant's anthropic and aesthetic argument
      • Anthropic: related to being human.
        • The natural world in which we live provides precisely the things that are necessary for life to be sustained.
        • the natural world we live in can not only be observed but holds itself up for rational analysis.
        • Evolution through natural selection has led to the development of intelligent human life
      • Aesthetic: related to the concept and appreciation of beauty.
        • No other species can react to its surroundings in the way.
          • Humans extended appreciation for art, music and poetry.
        • Our understanding of the world informs us that living organisms operate on a 'survival of the fittest' mechanism.
          • Tennant's response was to claim that this appreciation was a direct result of a benevolent God.
          • God wanted his creations to live in the world and to enjoy what they see.
        • For Tennant, the existence of beauty in the world was its own evidence for God's existence and for minds to discover the fact of God's existence for themselves

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