Improvements in 1860 - 78

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  • Created on: 07-10-19 22:19
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  • Improvements in Medicine 1860 - 75
    • Pasteur
      • Discovering Germ Theory
        • Microorganisms caused disease  and was spread through air
      • His impact
        • It led to an understanding in surgery, on why infection developed after an operation.
        • Lister's development of antiseptics.
        • Public Health - Helped explain the link between hygiene and health
        • Led to identify various microbes causing disease, so the next 30 years, vaccines could be produced.
    • Lister
      • Introduction of Carbolic Acid in surgery
        • He was told that the solution was used at the Carlisle sewage works and used to kill the microorganisms causing the decay
        • Began to use the solution to clean wounds, equipment, and bandages
          • Death rate from infection dropped
        • Carbolic Spay, used during operation, make sure no microorganisms are on the surgeons hands or equipment
      • Discovered antiseptics
    • Balzagette
      • Chief engineer to improve London Sewage system
        • Sewers should be large and waste should go to the sea.
          • Project finished  by 1875 and was very expensive.
    • The Sanitary Act 1866
      • All towns must employ inspectors to check water supplies and drainage.
    • Local governments take action to improve public health
      • Local Council Manchester made regulations about the size of rooms and windows in new houses, for light and ventilation
      • Mayor of Birmingham improved water supplies and demolish slums
    • The 1875 Public Health Act
      • Significant as reflects the attitude of laissez faire changing
        • Increased role of government in public health and a changed attitude towards government responsibility
          • Local authorities were now required to make improvement in hygiene
    • Florence Nightingale and her works
      • 1860, the Nightingale School for the training of nurses
      • Set up a training school for midwives in 1861
    • Elizabeth Garrett
      • 1866 - She opened  St Mary's Dispensary to provide medical treatment for women
        • 1872 - after Garrett's return, the Dispensary added a 10-bed ward; staffed all by women
          • It moves site and expanded several times becoming officially the Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital in 1918, just after her death
      • 1873 -  She became the  a member of the British Medical Association
        • First woman to become the first female mayor in England. 1908
    • Other Female doctors
      • Sophia Jex - Blake led four other women who persuaded Edinburgh university to let them study
        • However, they had to pay more as were taught separately from males.
          • They faced opposition and harassment and were not allowed to do practical work.
            • Edith Pechey won a prize in Chemistry and so was given to the male student who came second.
            • Then in 1874 the university forced the female students to leave.
      • Eventually Jex- Blake and Pechey gained their medical degrees abroad.
        • Attitudes were slow although some people were in favour of women being doctors.


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