Changes in Medicine 1848-1948 Big Fun Quiz!

  • Created by: lottievkc
  • Created on: 21-12-18 13:33
Who Wrote "The Sanitary Conditions of The Labouring Population"?
Edwin Chadwick
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Where Did Most Britons Live in Early 18th Century?
Countryside because of Agriculture
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Where Did Most Britons Live in Late 18th Century
Towns and Cities because Factories were on the Increase
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What Was The Popular Conclusion of Diseases in Mid-19th Century?
Bad Air
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When Was The First Cholera Epidemic in Britain?
1831-1832
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How Was Cholera Spread?
It was a water-borne disease that spread through sewers as they were emptied into rivers where people would get their drinking water.
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What Were Other Killer Diseases in Mid-19th Century?
Diphtheria, Smallpox, Tuberculosis, Typhus, Typhoid
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What Was Typhus?
Body Lice, people didn't know about importance of personal hygiene ew
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What Was The Laissez-Faire Attitude?
The Governments Attitude towards the dirt in Britain. They thought they should "let it be" and didn't believe it was their responsibility.
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Who Were The "Dirty Party"?
They were people who recognised the link between dirt and disease but didn't want the government to interfere and tax them lots of money for the clear up.
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Where Was The National Government Based?
Parliament, Westminster - London
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What Did The National Government Do?
They raised taxes and passed laws
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When Was Conservatives Robert Peel Prime Minister?
1841-1846
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What Did Edwin Chadwick's Report (1842) Conclude?
awful living conditions -> ill health -> poverty
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What Is 1 of 5 Ways That Edwin Chadwick Suggested That Public Health Could Be Improved By?
Sewage Removal
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When Was The Second Cholera Epidemic?
1848
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When Was The First Public Health Act Passed?
1848
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Why Was The First Public Health Act Ineffective?
because its provisions were not compulsory
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Many Britons Thought Cholera Had Something To Do With Cleanliness, What Did They Do As An Attempt To Cut The Link?
burned the clothes and bedding of victims, smoked cigars, scattered chloride to make everything look white and clean
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What Did The 1848 Public Health Act Contain?
it encouraged local authorities to improve their towns and they could borrow money to finance the clean ups. It also set up a Board of Health to maintain the new system
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How Much Money Did Local Councils Borrow Between 1848-1872 To Improve Public Health?
£11 Million
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When Was The Third Cholera Epidemic?
1853-1854
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Who Investigated The Broad Street Are of London?
John Snow
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Had Many People Died Because of Cholera within 10 days on Broad Street?
500
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What Did John Snow Notice About Broad Street?
it was near a water pump
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What Was Discovered About The Broad Street Pump?
a cesspool 1 metre away from the pump had cracked and it contaminated the drinking water
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When Was The Fourth Cholera Epidemic?
1866-1867
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How Many People Had Died From Cholera By 1867?
125,000+
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What Convinced People That Public Health Needed To Be Sorted Out?
John Snow, Edwin Chadwick, Louis Pasteur's Germ Theory
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Who Was Mrs Gamp?
a nurse from Charles Dickens novel (Martin Chuzzlewit) who represented nursing at the time; a woman with lack of medical knowledge who was often drunk and mean to her patients
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Where Did Florence Nightingale Work in 1851?
for 3 months she worked in a German hospital in Kaiserworth
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When Was The Crimean War?
1854
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Who Was Sidney Herbert?
the cabinet member responsible for war
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What Florence Nightingale Do For The Crimean War?
she led a team of 38 hand picked nurses to treat wounded British Soldiers
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How Did Florence Nightingale Transform The British Military Hospital at Scutari?
she boiled sheet and towels, brought more and better food, she improved sanitation and water supply and built a new ward that was well ventilated and clean
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What Was The New Death Rate in Scutari Military Hospital Thanks to Florence Nightingale?
from 42/100 to 2/100
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What Was Florence Nightingales Nickname?
The Lady With The Lamp
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What Was The Most Common Surgery?
Amputation, 1/2 of patients would die because of infections
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What Was an Important Thing That Surgeons Lacked?
Anaesthetics
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Why Did Transfusions Usually Fail?
because surgeons/doctors didn't know about the different blood types
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Who Used Ether as an Anaesthetic First in 1846?
John Collins Warren
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What Were Some Disadvantages of Ether?
it irritated the lungs, it was flammable, patients would be in comatose for several days and some patients would vomit
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Who Solved The Problem of Pain in Surgery in 1847?
James Simpson
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What Was An Alternative Anaesthetic to Alleviate Pain in Child Birth That James Simpson Discovered?
Chloroform
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What Were Some Disadvantages of Chloroform?
it affected the heart if a wrong dosage was given and conservatives believed that women should feel pain in childbirth
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By 1905 They Discovered That Chloroform Was Damaging The Liver, What Did They Use As An Alternative?
Novocaine
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What Was/Is The Period Between 1846-1870 Known As?
the 'Black Period'
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Who Invented The Microscope?
Louis Pasteur
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What Did Pasteur Prove at The French Academy of Science Competition?
that germs could be killed off by heating which was then known as Pasteurisation
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When Did Louis Pasteur Publish His "Germ Theory"?
1861
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Who Discovered That Micro-Organisms Caused Specific Human Diseases?
Robert Koch
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When Was The Second Public Health Act?
1850
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What Did Joseph Lister Use on Wounds After Operations?
Carbolic Spray
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What Was The Percentage of Patients That Died After Surgery Thanks To Lister?
30%
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What Was a Disadvantage of Carbolic Spray?
it was expensive and affected the medical staff in the surgery room
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What Did Lister Use, Instead of Silk, To Sew Up Wounds?
Catgut
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Why Did Lister Use Catgut Instead of Silk?
it could be sterilised and it dissolved into the body after a few days
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In Summer 1858, What Were City of London Authorities Planning?
a new sewer system
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Why Was The Period in 1858 Known As "The Great Stink"?
because the weather got hot and made the river thames water levels sink but sewage was still being dumped on the water bed meaning it was lingering for weeks and caused a horrible smell
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Who Finally Built a New Sewage System in London in 1858?
Joseph Bazalgette
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How Long Was The New Sewage System by 1865?
1300 miles
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What Did The Public Health Act of 1875 Make Compulsory?
local authorities had to provide clean water, proper sewage systems and employ medical officers of health e.g: health inspector and sanitary inspectors
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What Did Florence Nightingale Present to The Government?
an 800 page report explaining what needed to be done
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When Was Nightingales "Notes for Nursing" Published?
1859
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When Did Nightingale Establish Britain's First Training School For Nurses at St.Thomas's Hospital in London?
1860
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How Many Nurses Were Trained in Nightingales Style in Britain by 1900?
64,000
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Who Was The First Woman Doctor in Britain?
Elizabeth Garrett
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When Did Henry Campbell Bannerman (liberal) Win The Election vs Conservatives?
1906
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What Did The Liberals Introduce in 1906?
Education Act: local authorities provided free school meals to children of the poor (Provision of Meals) AND the Workers' Compensation Act led to the insurance of workers against injury at work
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What Did The Liberals Introduce in 1907?
Schools Medical Inspection Service, doctors and nurses made annual visits to schools to check on children's health
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What Did The Liberals Introduce in 1909?
Old Age Pension Act gave a weekly pension of 5 shillings (25p) to people over 70 with low incomes
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What Did The Liberals Introduce in 1909?
Old Age Pension Act gave a weekly pension of 5 shillings (25p) to people over 70 with low incomes
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Card 2

Front

Where Did Most Britons Live in Early 18th Century?

Back

Countryside because of Agriculture

Card 3

Front

Where Did Most Britons Live in Late 18th Century

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What Was The Popular Conclusion of Diseases in Mid-19th Century?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When Was The First Cholera Epidemic in Britain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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