GCSE Geography AQA A Restless Earth: Human use of fold mountains the Andes

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  • Human use of fold mountains The Andes
    • About
      • The Andes is a young range of fold mountains formed around 65 million years ago.
      • It's the longest range of fold mountains in the world. It's over 7000km in length.
      • It spans over the West Coast of South America, rising in the North in Colombia and finishing in Chile and Argentina in the South.
    • Farming
      • The Andes are used for a variety of farming practices.
      • The best farming land is the valley floor,  however terraces are dug into the valley sides which makes farming in the harsh environment easier.
      • Crops such as soya, maize,rice and cotton are grown in the Andes but the main crop is potato
      • Subsistence farming is also a main use of farming.
    • Mining
      • The Andes contains a rich mix of mine able materials that are valuable and useful to humans.
      • The Andean countries rank in the top 10 for tin, nickel, silver and gold.
      • More than half of Peru's exports are from mining and the Yanacocha gold mine is the largest gold mine in the world.
        • The nearby town of Cajamarca has grown from 30,000 to 300,000 since the mine opened.
    • Hydroelectric dam
      • The deep valleys and rivers of the valley make it ideal for hydroelectric power.
      • Snow melt fuses most of the water but this means HEP can be limited in winter.
      • In 2009, the El Latanal HEP plant began to generate electricity, involving a huge dam project over the Canete river costing $200m.
    • Tourism
      • Tourism is a massive industry in Peru as they have a lot to offer including a fantastic coast line.
      • In the East you can take part in eco-tourism activities in the Amazon Basin.
      • A popular tourist destination is the Inca Trail, the Trail covers 50km of old pathways linking the old Inka settlements in the Andes.
      • The Inka trail is South America's best known trek.
        • It is one of only 23 world heritage sites by UNESCO for being both culturally and naturally important.
      • The rail is covered in 4 days and covers around 45km, it finishes with sunrise at the lost city of incas at Machu Picchu.
        • The trail is strictly controlled and only 200 trekkers are allowed to start out on the trail each day.


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