How successful were Hitler's economic and social policies, 1933-1945?

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  • How successful were Hitler's economic and social policies, 1933-1945?
    • Hjalmar Schacht.
      • Good relationships with German industrialists - persuaded them to provide financial support to the NSDAP.
      • 'New Plan' -ntended to reduce imports, reduce unemployment, channel government spending into a wide range of industries and make trade agreements with other nations.
        • By 1939, Germany still imported 33% of its required raw materials.
        • Government income had been 10 billion Reichsmarks in 1928. In 1939, it stood at 15 billion.
        • Government spending had increased from 12 billion Reichsmarks in 1928, to over 30 billion in 1939.
        • By 1939, government debt stood at over 40 billion Resichsmarks.
        • Unemployment had fallen from 6 million in 1933 to 300,000 by 1939.
        • Industrial production in 1939 was above the figure for Weimar Germany before the 1929 Wall Street Crash.
    • 'Four Year Plan'.
      • Hermann Goering, 1936-1939.
      • To increase agricultural production.
      • To retain key sectors of the work force.
      • Government regulations of imports and exports.
      • To achieve self-sufficiency - 'Autarky'.
      • 'Strength Through Joy'.
        • Supervised after-work activities, holidays and leisure time. Theatre trips, summer holidays, skiing holidays, summer and winter hikes, cruises and outdoors activities. People living in the countryside had trains made available for them to get into a city to watch theatre performances.
          • 5,291 concerts, 3,586 films.
        • 1936 - 30,000,000 Germans.
        • In 1934, 2.1 million people had taken part in some form of KdF event.
        • Volkswagen - 'The People's Car'.
      • 'Beauty of Work'.
        • Work areas tidied up, new bathrooms and canteens built, social facilities constructed. These changes allowed for the creation of an illusion of prosperity and worker satisfaction.
        • Nazi propaganda showed German workers as fit, healthy, happy and satisfied with Hitler’s policies and leadership.
      • Reduced unemployment.
      • Helped preparation for Blitzkrieg.
        • Only prepared for short term war.
      • Nobody got Volkswagen.
    • Women.
      • Made up only 10% of NSDAP membership.
      • Average number of children fell from 2.3 in 1920 to 1.8 in 1940.
      • Marriages increased from 517,000 in 1932, to 740,000 in 1934.
      • Women were barred from being judges or lawyers, and from practicing medicine independently.
      • Church, children, cooking.
    • Education and youth.
      • 97% of all teachers joined the Nazi Teachers' Association.
      • PE took up 15% of a school's weekly timetable.
      • Hitler Youth - Membership of boys aged 14-18 increased from approximately 55,000 in 1932, to 1,700,000 in 1939.
      • BDM - Membership of girls aged between 14-18 increased from 19,000 in 1932, to approximately 1,500,000 in 1939.
        • 1939 - Membership became compulsary.
          • Hitler Youth - Membership of boys aged 14-18 increased from approximately 55,000 in 1932, to 1,700,000 in 1939.
        • Wife, mother and homemaker.
    • Total War economy - 1942-1945.
      • Appointment of Albert Speer - Minister of Armaments.
      • 97% increase in ammunition production.
      • 25% increase in tank production.
      • Overall arms production up 59%.
      • 1943 - He introduced civil conscription of women. By 1944, women made up 51% of the native German workforce.
    • German Labour Front.
      • Every worker in Germany was now a member of the same trade union, which was controlled by the Nazis. Managed discipline, wages and working hours.
        • Working hours increased, wages frozen, no way to express disapproval.

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