How organisms use ATP

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  • How organisms use ATP
    • What is it?
      • The immediate source of energy in a cell
        • Stored as chemical energy in the phosphate bond
        • Bonds between phosphate groups are unstable and easily broken
      • ATP + (H2O) --> ADP + Pi
        • Energy is released
        • ATPase enzyme
        • Hydrolysis
      • ADP + Pi --> ATP
        • ATP Synthase
        • Energy is used
      • Diffuses to the part of the cell that needs energy
    • What is it needed for?
      • Metabolic activity
      • Movement both within an organism (blood circulation) and the organism itself
      • Active transport
      • Maintenance, repair and division of cells and organelles
      • Production of substances e.g. enzymes and hormones
      • Maintenance of body temp
    • Photosynthesis
      • Light dependant reaction
        • Light energy is absorbed by photosynthetic pigments and converted to chemical energy
        • ATP transfers energy and NADH transfers hydrogen
        • Energy from the excited electrons makes ATP
          • Excited electrons lose energy as they move along the electron transport chain
          • This energy is used to transport protons into the thylakoid.
            • Thylakoid has a higher concentration of protons than the stroma
              • This forms a proton gradient across the membrane
          • Protons move down their concentration gradient into the stroma
            • Via ATP synthase enzyme
            • The energy from this movement combines ADP with Pi to form ATP
      • Light independent reaction
        • ATP from light dependant reaction provides energy to turn GP into TP
        • Uses the rest of the ATP to regenerate RuBP from TP
    • Properties
      • Stores and releases only a small, amount of energy at a time
        • No energy is wasted
        • More manageable
      • Small and soluble, so easily transported around the cell
      • Hydrolysis of ATP to ADP is a single reaction releasing immediate energy
      • Can transfer energy to another molecule by transferring one of its phosphate groups
      • Cannot be stored, so has to be continuously made within the mitochondria of cells that need it
    • Respiration
      • Glycolysis
        • Phosphorylation
          • Glucose is phosphorylated  from 2 Pi from 2 ATP
            • 2 molecules of TP and 2 molecules of ADP
        • Oxidation
          • TP is oxidised = 2 pyruvate
          • 4 ATP produced, but net gain is 2 ATP
      • Krebs cycle
        • Produces H atoms carried by NAD to ETC for oxidative phosphorylation
          • Leads to the productions of ATP
      • Electron Transport Chain
        • NADH and FADH donate e- of H atoms to 1st molecule in ETC
        • Protons of H atoms are released and actively transported across inner mitochondrial membrane
        • e- pass along ET carrier molecules, redox reactions
          • Electrons lose energy as they pass down the chain
            • This energy is used to combine ADP + Pi --> ATP
        • Protons accumulate in the space between 2 mitochondrial membranes
          • They diffuse back into the matrix via special protein channels
        • Electrons combine with these protons and oxygen to form water
      • 1 Glucose = 32 ATP
    • Active Transport
      • Uses energy (ATP) to move molecules and ions against concentration gradient
      • Exchange across plasma membranes
        • Carrier Protteins
      • Plants - roots - mineral ions in the soil

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