AQA A2 Biology Notes ATP

My notes taken from the AQA A2 Biology text book on the ATP chapter, no copyright intended, please dont copy my notes you may use them but please dont reproduce

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  • Created on: 04-01-13 15:09
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2.1 Energy and ATP
All living organisms need energy to survive, from the sun
Plants use energy from the sun and convert it to chemical energy but
Plants and animals break down organic molecules to adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Energy is the "ability to work"
AQA Biology A2 Notes

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Variety of forms, light, heat, sound, electrical, magnetic, mechanical,
chemical, and atomic energy
Changed to one form of another
Cannot be created for destroyed
Measured in joules
Living organisms are ordered systems that require energy to stop them becoming
Metabolism, all reactions that take place in organisms involve energy
Movement, within an organism and the organism
AQA Biology A2 Notes…read more

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Active transport, ions and molecules against a concentration gradient across
plasma membranes
Maintenance, repair and division, cells and organelles within cell
Production of substances, within organisms, enzymes and hormones
Maintenance of body temperature, birds, mammals.…read more

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Chemical energy from photosynthesis in the form of organic molecules
converted into ATP during respiration in the cells
ATP is used by cells to perform useful jobs
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has three phosphate groups.…read more

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Conversion of ATP to ADP is reliable reaction therefore energy can be used to add
inorganic phosphate to ADP and re-form ATP
Water is removed in this reaction, condensation reaction
Synthesis of ATP from ADP involves addition of phosphate
Photophosphorylation, takes place in the chlorophyll-containing plants during
Oxidative phosphorylation, occurs in the mitochondria of the plant and animal
cells during the process of electron transport
Substrate-level phosphorylation, occurs in plant and animal cells, phosphate
groups are transferred from donor molecules to ADP to make…read more

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ATP is synthesised using energy released during transfer of electrons along a chain
of electron carrier molecules either in chloroplasts or the mitochondria
ATP makes a good donor, instable phosphate bonds not good long term fat store
ATP is immidate source of energy cells don't store large amounts of ATP but
maintain a few seconds supply
ATP is rapidly reformed so little goes long way
Better immideate source of energy because:
Each molecule releases less energy than a glucose molecule, energy for
reactions is smaller…read more

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Hydrolysis if ATP is single reaction, releases immediate energy.…read more

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Secretion, needed to form lysosomes necessary for secretion of cell
Activation of molecules, phosphate molecule transferred from ATP to
another makes it more reactive lowers activation energy.…read more


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