Henry's changing relations with the Catholic Church and the break with Rome

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Henry's changing relations with the Catholic Church and the break with Rome
    • Criticisms of the Church
      • Humanists complained of pluralism, absenteeism, simony, nepotism, uneducated clergy + wealthy clergy
        • Criticisms muted during Wolsey's rule
      • Most anti-clericalism dates from 1530s
        • English Church in 1520s = well respected + highly regarded
      • Ultimately King not Wolsey ran the Church
        • English Church = Erastian Kingship
    • Wolsey as Papal Legate
      • Appointed in 1518 for life
        • Unusual to be given title for so long
      • Bishops appointed in this time all sound + well qualified
      • Organised visitations of greater monasteries
      • Strove to imrpve provison of education for poor sudents
    • The Great Matter
      • Henry had no son + feared Mary unacceptable soverign
        • There had not been a female ruler
        • Believed lack of son to be punishment from God
      • Henry believed Pope could not allow his marriage
        • He had married his sister-in-law
      • Henry wanted to marry Anne Boleyn
    • Weak case for annulment
      • He argued using Leviticus
        • Deuteronomy says a man should marry his brother's wife if he dies
      • Catherine claimed her marriage to Arthur had not be consumated
      • His attitude towards Anne Boleyn appeared he wanted her as a prettier, younger wife
      • Catherine highly regarded in court
        • Anne not highly regarded
    • The fall of Wolsey
      • Hoped to be made acting Pope
        • Would allow him to annul marriage
      • Charged with praemunire
        • Serving Pope before King
        • But King was reluctant to get rid of him
      • Boleyn faction said he was deliberately failing to get annulment
    • How Henry broke from Rome
      • Took 6 years and a lot of diplomacy
      • Archbishop of Canterbury unsympathetic toward attempt at annulment
        • Henry had to wait until he died to appoint Cranmer the position in 1532
      • Henry thought Pope would eventually yield (he didn't)
        • Henry needed Papl approval to ensure next marriage was as legitimate
      • Henry put increasing pressure on Pope + English Church
        • Put him in position to claim he was real head of Church
      • 1532 Submission of the clergy - agreed to acknowledge him as supreme head of church
        • As far as law of Christ allows
    • Series of Parliamentary laws
      • 1533 Act in Restraint of Appeals
        • All legal cases in England decided + determined in England
          • Illegal to appeal to foreign power (e.g. Pope)
          • Catherine could not appeal for foreign aid
      • 1534 Act of Succession
        • Henry + Catherine never married so Mary a bastard
        • Marriage to Anne = legitimate so any children were true heirs
      • 1534 Act of Supremacy
        • Henry = Supreme heead of Church in England
          • Declared Kings of England always had been head of church
      • 1534 The Treason Act
        • Major widening of definition of treason
        • Could be used to dispose of oppoistion
        • Declared treason could now be committed via words as well as actions
    • Doctinal changes in 1530s
      • King's Supremacy
        • England had broken away from Rome's control
      • The Ten Articles
        • Made limited moves toward Lutheran ideas
      • The Bishops' Book 1537
        • Drawn up to fill in gaps left by Ten Articles
          • 4 lost sacraments rediscovered
      • Cromwell's injunctions 1536
        • Clergy to educate children + preach of Supremacy + Ten Artices
        • Number of holy days (holidays) decreased
      • Cromwell's injunctions 1538
        • Religious images to be removed
        • Sermons against veneration of relics/images
    • Reformation on hold 1538-1540
      • 1538 John Lambert burnt at stake
        • He argued body of Christ not present in Eucharist
          • Such radical ideas not tolerated
      • 1539 The Act of Six Articles
        • Transubstantiation - bread + wine become body + blood
        • Clerical celibacy - clergy cannot marry
        • Communion of both kinds (cread + wine reserved for clergy - others get bread only
        • Vows of chastity -must be upheld
        • Mass for dead = important
        • Auricular confession - oral confession of sin to priest
    • Overthrow of Cromwell 1540
      • Dismissed + executed for treason
        • Real reason = Henry's failure of marriage to Anne of Cleves
      • Accused of Heresy

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all British monarchy - Tudors and Stuarts resources »