- January 1533: Henry and Katherine were divorced by an issue from Archbishop Cranmer. Henry married Anne Boleyn.
- 7 September 1533: Elizabeth born, Mary seen as illegitimate.
- 1536: Death of Katherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn miscarried a son and was executed
- NB at this point, Henry could have gone back to Catholicism
- however, he did not because he truly believed that he was doing the right thing
- convinced of his own supremacy
- instead, he married Jane Seymour
- 1537: Birth of Edward, death of Jane soon after.
- 1539: Henry began considering another marriage
Throughout this period Henry broke with Rome, stopped English finances going to the pope, abolished foreign authority in England and diverted church taxation to the crown.
- 1533: Act of Appeals stated "this realm of England is an empire". Royal supremacy established
- 1535: Execution of Thomas More and John Fisher
- 1536: Dissolution of the Monastries
- this gave Henry the money he needed for war with France
- Pilgrimage of Grace: rebellion in the north
- opposition to religious changes and the power of Cromwell
- was sent away with promises of reform (never instigated)
- 1539: Act of Six Articles
- reaffirmed many Catholic doctrines such as transubstantiation
Although Henry was drifting towards more Protestant beliefs (e.g. the printing of a Bible in English), Catholic invasion was a real threat in the later 1530s and so he tried to reverse this with the Act of Six Articles.
Good relations with France
- Anne Boleyn and her faction were pro-French, so cordial relations were kept with France
- 1532: Francis I promised to support Henry if Charles should attack England
- Francis supported Henry throughout his break with Rome, however it is probable that this was not so much for religious reasons as wanting to see England isolated politically
- Henry and Francis met regularly throughout the year
- 1536: Francis and Charles resumed their hostilities, but Henry resolved not to enter into the conflict. This infuriated Francis.
Why Charles V did not attack England
Charles V had relatively little money to spend on war with England in the 1530s. This was due to:
- conflict with the Schmalkaldic League (a league of Lutheran countries and princes)
- War against the Turks (in 1535 Charles had just launched a huge expedition against the Turks)
- the economy in the Netherlands was in a bad way and he could not afford to launch an attack against England
How real was the danger of invasion in the 1530s?
- marriage of James V of Scotland to Mary of Guise (the French princess who famously jilted Henry VIII)
- temporarily improved relations between France and Spain in 1538 (Treaty of Nice)
- a dispute over a printing of the Bible between France and England
Thus England had no ally; Pope Paul III supported the Pilgrimage of Grace 1536-7 and in 1539 published a papal bull deposing Henry. Cardinal Reginald Pole was ordered by the Pope to launch a crusade against England.
Henry hurriedly published the Act of Six Articles (1539) reaffirming Catholic doctrines.