The Reformation


Key Beliefs of the Catholic Church

Seven sacraments:

·         Baptism

·         Eucharist

·         Reconciliation

·         Confirmation

·         Marriage

·         Holy orders

·         Anointing of the stick

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Main Problems with the Catholic Church

·         Corruption - stipend, immoral and ignorant

·         Humanism – criticise Catholic beliefs

·         Too much political power – Have their own law courts

·         Role of the Monks and Nuns – 800 religious houses

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Why was the Catholic Church so Important to Englis

The King:

·         Issue with control – who should people obey, the king or the pope?

·         Erasian state – King is in control

·         Employed clergy as advisors – Wolsey

·         King can give religious favours to friends

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Why was the Catholic Church so Important to Englis

The Nobility:

·         Church helps with law and order and social hierarchy

·         Had to work alongside Bishops in House of Lords

·         Employment opportunities – Earl of Warwick

Clergy came from nobility due to education

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Why was the Catholic Church so Important to Englis

The Priests:

·         Power and influence – open to bribery

·         Training and education

·         Political role – e.g. chancellor

·         Access to bible - Latin

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Why was the Catholic Church so Important to Englis

The Common People:

·         Left money in wills

·         Charity work – e.g. funding funerals

·         Fundraising to maintain building

·         Holy days – community

·         Church well attended

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The Lutherans

·         Wished to alter radically the religion of England

·         Were a small group of radical reformers

·         Had ideas similar to those held by Martin Luther in Germany

·         One part of this group was led by Robert Barnes

·         Robert Barnes was an academic and clergyman based at the white house tavern in Cambridge

·         Quite an influence on Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury and Hugh Latimer, Bishop of Rochester

·         Influence was mostly confined to academic circles

·         Lutheran ideas were not that important as they didn’t really influence people or Henry

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Ideas of Martin Luther

·         Criticism of indulgences

·         Challenged authority of pope and cardinals

·         Published bible in German, not Latin as usual

·         Bible should be basis of belief, not Roman church’s interpretation of it

·         Stressed preaching, communication and congregational singing

·         Emphasised direct and personal relationship between Christ and the individual believer

·         Rejected ideas and ceremonies which he felt did not originate from the bible

·         Disliked catholic emphasis on worship of Virgin Mary

·         Priesthood of all believers – no need for a hierarchal church in order for ordinary people to be saved

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The Lollards

·         Led by Oxford University clergyman, John Wycliffe

·         Main ideas were to print the Bible in English as well as have it available to all

·         Wanted to close the monasteries

·         Wanted to reduce the wealth of the church

·         Main support is in rural areas of England

·         They play no significant role in England

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The Humanists

·         Ideas came from Greek and Latin writers

·         Mainly members of the clergy

·         Wanted to purify the church

·         Wanted to end corruption

·         Wanted to reduce wealth of the church

·         Studied the humanities

·         Mocked key figures in the church

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Key Catholic Beliefs

·         The pope is head of the church

·         Believe in purgatory

·         Priest act as the link between God and people

·         Churches should be decorated with paintings and coloured windows

·         Priests should not marry

·         You can buy your way into heaven

·         Pope and Bishops can forgive sins if you give a gift to the church

Bible services should be in Latin

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Key Protestant Beliefs

·         Ministers should wear plain clothing

·         Churches should be plain

·         Only Jesus can forgive your sins

·         Ministers should be allowed to marry

·         People do not need priests to believe in God

·         Jesus is head of the Church

·         Bible and services should be in English

You cannot buy your way into heaven

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Causes of the Break with Rome

·         Role of the Anne Boleyn faction

·         State of the church and reformist ideas

·         Henry’s desire for more power

·         Henry’s need to increase his revenue

·         Harry’s own conscience

·         Henry’s desire for a male heir

The state of the church

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The Succession Issue

·         It was unlikely Catherine would have any more children because it was likely that she had entered menopause by the age of 40

·         The idea that a woman should inherit the throne of England was regarded as unthinkable therefore, Mary could not succeed the throne

       In 1527 the Spanish ambassador informed the Spanish king that Henry had secretly assembled a group of bishops and lawyers to sign a declaration that his marriage to Catherine was null and void

       Henry had failed to produce a legitimate son with Catherine, however he had produced a son with his mistress. He decided that this marriage must be a punishment from God for a sinful marriage so decided his marriage was void

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Henry's 3 options for the succession issue

·         He could legitimise the Duke of Richmond

·         He could marry off Mary as soon as possible

·         He could get rid of Catherine and start again

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Problems when asking the Pope for permission

·         The original marriage had been carried out after papal dispensation

·         Differing messages from the Bible

·         The Pope was the prisoner of Charles V, Catherine’s nephew

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Who were the Key players in the Reformation

·         Henry VIII

·         Anne Boleyn

·         Humanists

·         Thomas Cromwell

·         Catholic Church

Martin Luther

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Henry VIII

·         The King who demanded a divorce

·         Process of breaking with Rome began in 1552

·         Break of Rome could only ever happen if the king demanded it

·         The actual decision to break with Rome grew from the religious advice of Thomas Cranmer

·         Despite the guidance and support he received from some extremely clever men, could Henry have really introduced the Reformation to England

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Thomas Cromwell

·         Believed the church needed change

·         Encouraged Henry VIII to think the unthinkable and completely reject the religious authority of the Pope

·         Advised Henry to make the role of Parliament more important

The law against annates

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Anne Boleyn

·         Trigger for the break down in relations between Henry and the Pope

·         Highlighted the fact that when deciding certain issues, the pope had greater authority in England than the King

·         This was what started the break with Rome

·         Was a protestant

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Martin Luther and the Protestants

·         Most important thinker between these new ideas

·         Successful of showing the weaknesses of the catholic church

·         Came up with an alternative form of Christian worship

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Catholic Church

·         Knowledge of the growing frustration and anger felt by many English people towards the Catholic Church

·         Saw rampant greed of leading clergy

·         Pluralism and absenteeism of thousands of parish priests

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·         Remained loyal to the Catholic Church but were aware of its many failings

·         Openly criticised the Church

·         Their criticisms would have been read by many of the most influential men in England

·         Made men in parliament more open to the idea of significant religious change as a result of the criticism made by the Humanists

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Acts of Parliament

The Act of Restraint of Appeals – No appeals were to be made from England to Rome; the divorce; time of consummation was decided

Act of Dispensations – Ended any payments to Rome

First Succession Act – Succession lay with male heirs of Anne Boleyn and then any subsequent wife after

Act of Supremacy – Henry was supreme head of the church

Treason Act – High treason to threaten Henry, Anne or his heirs

Act of First Fruits and Tenths – Income to be paid to the king

Act Against Papal Author – removed any authority of the Pope

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Doctrinal Changes

·         People were no longer supposed to worship statues or pictures of saints

·         Holy relics had been destroyed

·         Pilgrimages had been stopped

The number of Holy or Saints’ days had been cut down from 120 to 25

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Organisational Changes

·         Dissolution of the monasteries

·         Act of Restraint of Appeals

·         Act of Supremacy

·         The King appointed all bishops and archbishops

·         The king gave ultimate judgement on all religious matters

·         Act in Restraint of Annates – taxes for religious services now paid to the King

·         1539 – the great bible was introduced

The bible was written in English not Latin

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Dissolution of the Monastries

·         Henry wanted to get rid of the monasteries to eventually gain ultimate control and increase wealth

·         Cromwell justified the dissolution by amassing the evidence – sent visitors round the country to inspect all monastic institutions to find criticisms

·         In 1536 an Act of Parliament was passed to dissolve the smaller monasteries

·         In 1539 an Act was passed to dissolve the remaining monasteries

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