Henry IV's Foreign Policy

Henry IV's Foreign Policy - AS level History, AQA

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  • Created by: Clodagh
  • Created on: 19-05-13 10:27
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  • Henry IV's Foreign Policy
    • Aims
      • Good relations maintained with Dutch Republic, England and German Protestant Princes - Maintain European peace
      • This had to be achieved peacefully because...
        • Financial problems
          • Henry was in debt to other countries
          • War would be costly
        • Need to avoid antagonising other Catholic powers
      • Move Spanish troops from France
      • Probe Spanish communications in north Italy
    • War against the Spanish, 1595-1598
      • He was determined to remove the Spanish armies from French soil
      • By 1595 there was the chance that Hnery could use the war to unite Huguenots and Catholics against a common enemy
      • In 1595 Henry defeated the Spanish at Fontaine-Francaise and was able to consolidate hold of Burgundy
        • The Duke of Mayenne was disgusted with his Spanish ally and so came to terms with Henry
          • The Dukes of Epernon and Joyeuse followed suit
            • The war was successful in that it united most of the French against a common enemy, helped Henry to win over important nobles and consolidate his control of France
      • Henry benefitted from the Peace Treaty of Vervins with Spain in 1598
        • All towns captured from the French crown since the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis in 1559 should be returned
          • The treaty returned Calais, Toul, Metz, Verdun and Amiens to France which maintained the north-eastern frontier
        • Spanish troops were removed from French soil
    • War with Savoy, 1600
      • Henry declared war on Savoy over the issue of Saluzzo
        • France had agreed to papal arbitration over French claims to Saluzzo after it was seized by the Duke of Savoy in 1588 in return for their land in the Treaty of Vervins
        • The ruler of Savoy had agreed to hand over the region but then appealed to Spanish troops to help him defend it
          • Henry realised he had been tricked and declared war but tried hard to avoid alarming the other Italian princes
      • French troops invaded with 50,000 men
      • In 1601 a treaty was agreed. Henry gave up Saluzzo but received the territories of Bresse, Bugey, Valromey and Gex
      • Some thought that Henry should have kept Saluzzo. Its loss deprived France of the opportunity to counterbalance Spanish power in Northern Itlay
        • Saluzzo was more valuable than the territories that were gained
        • Savoy received a guarantee of French protection of the region
          • Spain had free access across the Alps and through Saluzzo
    • Bouillon, 1606
      • Spain sought to cause trouble for France by supporting discontented French nobles
        • Henry had to ally with the United Provinces so that Bouillon, based in Sedan, couldn't cause trouble for Henry. Frederick of the Palatinate was Bouillon's brother-in-law
          • Frederick was also owed money from Henry
    • Diplomacy preferred
      • As early as 1597, diplomatic efforts had led to a trade agreement with the Sultan (Ottoman Empire) which was reinforced in 1604 when commercial privileges hitherto extended to the English revoked in favour of the French
      • Henry didn't have the resources for war himself. Negotiations were opened with Sweden to give Bourbon influence some access to the Baltic
      • Henry needed to cultivate the goodwill of those not so bound, most noticeably, the papacy
      • Relations were also improved with Venice. They had powerful trade, were wealthy and controlled access to the Alpine passes. Spain was dominant through Naples and Milan (The Spanish Road)
        • Venice were happy to negotiate as Venetians merchants were vulnerable to Adriatic pirates and they also needed diplomatic support to retain its influence in the central Alps
      • In relations with Switzerland, the main aim was to secure control over the Alpine passes, or at least sufficient control to allow the king to inhibit communications between Spanish North Italy and the Low Countries
        • It would also allow French troops to pass through if Venice was in need of any assisstance
      • Henry tried to win support from the Dutch by giving them financial aid to the rebels in 1603
        • There had been rebellions against Spain since 1572
      • Protestant Princes hated the Holy Roman Empire that was controlled by the Habsburgs
      • O:Ottoman Empire S:Sweden P:Papacy V:Venice S:Switzerland
    • Cleves-Julich,1609
      • France was keen to break out of encirclement
      • The problem occurred when Duke John William died without an heir. There was 8 claimants, two of whom were of the French Aristocracy
        • Rudolf II declared his right to arbitrate, and appointed an administrator for the Duchy while the arbitration took place
          • Unfortunately the two principal claimants, the Dukes of Brandenburgand Neuburg had got in first and appointed a joint administration
      • Rudolf was annoyed and offended and so moved Spanish troops into Julich in support of his authority
      • Henry was cautious. He had only just signed the truce of Antwerp and was not sure that if he acted, any significant body of German princes would support him
      • In October 1609, Henry issued an ultimatum to the Emporer to remove both his administrators and the Spanish soldiers
        • At the beginning of May 50,000 French troops were prepared to cross Cleves-Julich
          • This never happened because Henry was assassinated on the 14th

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