Harrying of the North

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  • Created by: Jhick
  • Created on: 10-05-18 21:05
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  • Harrying of the North
    • Features
      • Livestock killed
      • Homes destroyed so people had nowhere to shelter
      • Took place in the winter of 1069-1070
      • Area of Harrying stretched from the Humber River to the Tees River. Also in Staffordshire and parts of Shropshire
      • Seed destroyed so there was nothing to plant for food the next year
    • Reasons
      • Revenge for the death of Robert Cumin and hundreds of other Normans
      • To destroy the spirit of rebellion in the north
      • To prevent Vikings using Yorkshire as a base for future attacks
      • As a warning to other areas of England of what could happen to them
      • A military response to guerrilla warfare, which depended on support for rebels from local people
    • Long term consequences
      • No further rebellion from the north; after 1071 no further Anglo-Saxon rebellions
      • Danish invaders in 1070 went to Ely as there was now no base for them in Yorkshire
      • A turning point: after 1070 William decided to replace the English aristocracy with Normans
      • 20 years later, Yorkshire had still not recovered; 60  per cent was listed as 'waste' in the Domesday Book and there were between 80000 and 150000 fewer people then in 1066
      • Criticism of Williams brutality and William's own sense of his sin and need for penance
    • Immediate consequences
      • Death of thousands from starvation: perhaps as many as 100000 people died
      • Flood of refugees from the north to other parts of England
      • Reports of cannibalism by desperate, starving people
      • Reports of families selling themselves into slavery to survive

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