Harry S. Truman

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  • Harry S. Truman
    • The changing political environment
      • The Second Red Scare - 1947-54
        • Joseph McCarthy
          • 205 to 57 to 81
        • Trials of Alger Hiss (1949; retrial 1950)
        • Rosenbergs found guilty
      • Korean War - 1950-53
        • 7 July 1950 - news papers published false headlines on Truman
      • Houseo of Un-American Activities Commission (HUAC)
      • 1949 - China became communist
      • Cold War
        • USA vs USSR
        • "The Truman Doctrine" followed by Marshall Aid
        • 1949 - NATO - North Altlantic Treaty Organisation
        • Atomic bombs rose from 13 to 50 (1947-48)
        • 1947 - National Security Act - reorganise military forces
        • CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) and National Security Council reported to the White House.
        • President didnt need to consult Congress to go to nuclear war (among other things)
    • The quest for civil rights
      • 1946 - President's Committee on Civil Rights - calling for equal opportunities and housing
      • Morgan vs Virginia
      • Cold War distracted him
      • National Negro Congress - ended up on the governments list of expected communist groups
      • 1948 - Executive orders to desegregate the military and all work done in business for the government
      • Sweatt vs Painter - desegregate Tax law school
      • NAACP membership - 9,000 (1917), 90,000 (1919), 600,000 (1946)
      • 1948 - Shelley vs Kramer - bans regulations that bar black people buying houses in an area in any state
      • CORE sit-ins
      • 1947 -Fellowship of Reconciliation - CORE
    • Society and culture change
      • GI bills
      • 1946 - Federally funded day-care centres closed down
      • Married women in the workforce = 10.1% (1940) - 22.2% (1950) - ages 45-54
      • Percentage who believed married women shouldn't work - 82% (1936) - 78% (1938) - 13% (1942) - then started to rise steadily after the war again 38% (1978)
      • 1952 - Immigration and Nationality Act (McCarren-Walter Act)
        • Refugee Act's placed because it didn't allow for refugees (greatly needed in the Cold War)
      • Division of immigrants due to WWII - Japanese were treated with hostility.
      • 1948 - Displaced Persons Act (extended 1950) - Allowing of the immigration of 450,000 - Truman argued for it not to be restricted by quotas but failed.
      • 1953 - Refugee Relief Act - extends Displaced Persons Act of 1948 - 214,000 immigrants from Europe allowed outside of the number restrictions
      • See It Now - CBS
      • 20 Oct 1953 - Ed Murrow did a broadcast story on the Red Scare
    • The changing quality of life
      • Post-WWII affluence
        • Production increase: $213 billion (1945) to $284 billion (1950)
        • Truman took over the railways - strikers were to be drafted into the army
        • "baby boom"
          • nappy sales - $32 million (1947) to $50 million (1957)
        • "Fair Deal"
          • Gov. spending rose
        • 1949 - National Housing Act - building of 810,000 low-income housing units
      • OPA - Office of Price Administration closed in 1946
        • Farmers and businesses exploited this and prices rose by 25% in the following two week
      • 1946 Employment Act
        • Set up the Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)
      • President to give a strategy report to a Joint Economic Committee of the House of Representatives and the Senate after each federal budget
      • Gov. careful to keep taxes low and buying on credit meant that inflation didn't damp down spending in the 1950s
      • Fed put control on the money supply to keep inflation low
      • TV - 9% of homes had on (1950) only get reception in areas in New York
      • 1948 - 16 broadcasting stations - 1954 - 354
      • TV = 15 cm X 12 cm
      • COCA COLA - $55.7 million before tax (1950)
      • Increasing consumerism
      • Start of suburban living
      • Increasing appliances and electronics becoming readily available
    • 1945-53
    • REPUBLICAN

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