Sociology- Groups most at risk of poverty

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      • Behavioural
        • Not motivated to work- have done their fair share of work other their lifetime
        • Want to sustain their pre-retirement lifestyle on less money (not prepared to make cuts)
        • Failure to set money aside for retirement
        • Less adaptable- decide to retire at 65 regardless of situation
        • Not willing to ask for help
        • Reluctance to claim benefit entitlements (900,000 don't claim pension tax credits)
      • Situational
        • Have had insufficient resources during working lifetime to make provision for retirement
        • May only have one income to live on if spouse is deceased
        • Extra costs due to old age e.g. transport to medical appointments
        • Inability to work due to problems associated with old age
      • Structural
        • Forced retirement
        • Inadequate state pension (currently £5881 a year)
    • WOMEN
      • Behavioural
        • Young girls 'churn out' babies with out consideration of whether than can afford it
        • Women have a lack of commitment to paid employment
        • Women are dependant on males for income
      • Situational
        • Most lone-parents are female which is strongly associated with poverty
        • Women are more likely to work part-time which is lower paid and offers less opportunities
        • Women have caring responsibilities and can not work as much because of it
        • Women live longer than men so the majority of pensioners are women which are more likely to be poor
      • Structural
        • Outdated gender norms and stereotypes see the women's role at home- discrimination
        • Benefits for carers and single parents are too low for them to be able to sustain a decent standard of living
      • Behavioural
        • Some Bangladeshi and Pakistani families choose to have larger families which demands a greater income
        • New arrivals in the UK may be reluctant to learn the language
        • Cultural values may mean children following in their parents footsteps
      • Situational
        • May face language barriers which make it difficult to find work
        • Tend to live in more deprived areas where jobs opportunities are low and there is poor education
        • More likely to have unskilled, low pay jobs
        • Perform worse at school
        • Poor quality housing
        • More likely to be lone-parents
      • Structural
        • Howard et al (2001) failure to provide translation facilities
        • Racism and discrimination
        • Stereotypes of some women from ethnic groups having to give up work for children
      • Behavioural
        • Have developed a psychology of dependancy
        • Have put up barriers to find employment
      • Situational
        • Additional costs associated with disability e.g. transport, medicine, heating costs
        • Inability to work due to disability
      • Structural
        • Society disables people with impairments by restricting access thus limiting their opportunities
        • Labour market exculsion
        • Disability living allowance is inadequate


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