What do sociologists believe childhood is?
A social construct rather than biological.
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What is a social construct?
Something that has been created by society over a period of time.
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What is childhood?
Age stage between infancy and adolescence.
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How are Western children different to children in developing countries?
They do not have responsibilities of an adult. Children in developing countries and simple societies are forced to work as soon as they can walk, talk and feed themselves.
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What percentage of children work?
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How many children between the age of 5 and 17 are involved in child labour in Sub-Saharan Africa?
215 million.
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How many countries use child soldiers?
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How many child murders are there each year?
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What percentage of girls are ***** each year?
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What do these examples show?
Childhood is different in each society, with children expected to take on adult responsibilities at an early age, which would be illegal in the UK.
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What did the historian sociologist Aries study?
Society in the medieval period.
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What materials did Aries use?
Documentaries and paintings.
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What does Aries claim?
There is no such thing as childhood. Children were treated as adults as soon as they could walk, talk and feed themselves.
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Why did parents not form an emotional bond with their children?
Due to the high infant mortality rate. This led to parents, employers and society treating children cruelly.
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What did Aries research show?
Childhood is socially constructed, he demonstrates how ideas about children have changed over time.
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What were children seen as in the early stages of industrialisation?
Economic assets because they could work and contribute towards income.
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What laws limited childrens earning power?
Child Labour Act (1820), children were excluded from paid work so they became an economic liability. Compulsory Education (Mundella Act) meant children stayed in education for longer meaning their childhood extends.
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What are the consequences of these Acts?
Children being an economic liability, not asset and family sizes are becoming smaller.
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What are children seen as now?
Innocents in need of protection and care.
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What does child centered mean?
Wellbeing of children become priority.
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What is a child centered society?
The welfare of children is seen as important and where children are seen as in need of care and protection.
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What are the two child welfare and protection laws?
1889 The Prevention of Cruelty to Children and 1989 The Childrens Act. These laws underpin the work of agencies such as social workers.
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What are childrens rights?
Parents have responsibilities over their children but not rights. They have a duty to care, feed, clothe, house and look after their children and protect them from neglect and abuse. Children should be involved in decisions which affect them (custody
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What has encouraged parents to make a greater emotional and financial investment in their children?
Declining family size and lower infant mortality. There are greater emotional bonds between parent and child.
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Are children punished in the same way as adults?
There is a separate judicial system which deals with children who commit crimes and they are punished differently to adults.
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What is pester power?
Businesses aim toys, books, foods, games and films at children giving them a lot of spending power.
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What are paediatrics?
The development of a branch of medicine which deals with medical care of children and adolescents and also the development of child psychology.
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What is the March of Progression View?
A view that Aries sees, arguing that children are better cared for, protected and educated and have more rights than any other generation.
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How has the position of children improved?
Laws protect them from exploitation and abuse. Better standards of living and healthcare have lowered infant mortality rate. Families become child centered. Higher standard of living&smaller family sizes mean more time and money spent on them.
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What did Postman study?
The disappearance of childhood.
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What did he believe?
Childhood is disappearing because its distinction from adulthood is becoming blurred.
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How is it blurred?
Information via technology is easy to obtain and does not require complex skills and has broken down the boundaries between adulthood and childhood. The ignorance and innocence of childhood is replaced by knowledge and cynicism.
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What is another reason it is blurred?
The disapperance of adulthood where adults and children tastes become indistinguishable eg leisure activities, clothes etc.
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Who does Postman believe this is because of?
Media. Children are no longer protected and treated as innocents .
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What evidence proves children are no longer seen as in need of care and protection?
Underage children working long hours for little money exploited by employers.
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What evidence proves children are no longer seen as in need of care and protection?
Children being abused sexually and physically by members of their family. Children being neglected and children being abused by strangers. 32,000 children are on the At Risk register. 59% of girls and 27% of boys will be sexually abused.
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What evidence proves children are no longer seen as in need of care and protection?
Children acting as unpaid carers for parents, grandparents or siblings etc.
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What evidence proves children are no longer seen as in need of care and protection?
4 million children live in poverty in the UK.
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What did Sue Palmer study?
Toxic Childhood.
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What does Sue Palmer claim?
That ADHD, substance abuse and self-harm in children, are signs of unhappiness due to family breakdown, poor diet, lack of emotional stability and security during childhood, lack of role models and interaction with family members&too much time on TV.
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What does Sue Palmer believe parents do?
She thinks parents are too busy with work and give in to their childrens material demands, at the expenses of good quality relationships (pester power).
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What is the Bailey review?
Study of the 'sexualised wallpaper' that surrounds children via the media. The government have recommended a reduction in sexualised imagery in street advertising and made it easier for parents to block adult material across all media.
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What did Hood-Williams claim?
Parents excessively control their children.
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What did Furedi believe?
Parents are over concerned by their childrens safety and this results in them driving them short distances to school in the car and forbidding them to play in parks, limiting the healthy exercise and independence they would gain.
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What did Louv agree with?
That childrens lives are duller for being kept indoors and away from nature.
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What makes childrens childhoods different?
Social class, ethnic background and gender.
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Why does social class cause different childhoods?
Working class children are more likely to experience poverty and health problems and are less likely to be successful in education. There are also differences in child rearing practices.
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What are the different child rearing practices?
Speech patterns: w.c kids learn and speak the restricted code which can limit their understanding and success in education. M.c kids learn the elaborated code which enhances their understanding and chances of success in education.
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What are the different child rearing practices?
Education: w.c kids experience a state education but m.c parents can afford to buy their children a private education or private tutors. Different classes have different values.
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What are the different child rearing practices?
Childcare: w.c kids are looked after by parents or other relatives etc but m.c can afford private nurseries, nannies and child minders.
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How does gender create different childhoods?
Boys and girls may experience different levels of independence, with boys being allowed more freedom than girls. They experience different parental rules. They may be expected to do different tasks in the home which socialises them into different
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How does gender create different childhoods?
gender roles. Females are expected to do more domestic tasks than males. They play with different toys.
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How does ethnic group create different childhoods?
This may be influenced by different cultural rules and religions. Asian parents are stricter with their daughters than other ethnic groups.
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What is adolescence?
The latter stage before a child becomes an adult.
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What is the rites of passage?
In some cultures and societies children make the transition from childhood to adulthood through a ceremony or ritual.
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What religion has a rites of passage?
Jews. Jewish males go through a religious ceremony called a 'bar mitzvah'.
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What is the Children Labour Law?
Introduced in 1820's, and continually updated since. These laws prevent children from working in certain industries, in certain conditions and at certain times of the day. Introduced to protect the safety and health of children.
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What is the Introduction of Compulsory Education?
Introduced in 1880, children now have to go to school up to the age of 18. A good education gives them the chance of a better and healthier life because it equips them to find jobs.
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Explain the introduction of a separate judicial system for children
Children are now tried separately to adults and their treatment focuses on rehabilitation, so they can integrate into society and become self-sufficient.
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What is social services?
A separate government department which deals with the physical and emotional wellbeing of children.
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What is EMA/Bursary?
A means tested some money which students can claim for travelling expenses and stationary. Allows children from less advantaged backgrounds to study in further education.
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What does the Prevention of Cruelty Act 1889 do?
Makes parents responsible for the wellbeing of their child eg food, shelter etc.
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What does the Childrens Act 1989 do?
Allows children to have more say, children can choose who they want to live with. Parents have to accept that they have responsibility for their own children.
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What are child benefits?
A monthly sum of money which is paid to parents to help them bring up their children.
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What is Family Tax Credits?
Money paid to parents on low incomes to help them support their children financially.
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Card 2


What is a social construct?


Something that has been created by society over a period of time.

Card 3


What is childhood?


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Card 4


How are Western children different to children in developing countries?


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Card 5


What percentage of children work?


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