Sociology

What was introduced in the Industrial Revolution?
Mechanisation, which resulted in the mass production of goods. This meant families moved off land, where human labour was replaced with machines. They moved to be closer to factories where they could get work.
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What is urbanisation?
Moving from rural areas (countryside) to urban areas (towns and cities). This made the population grow due to people meeting the opposite sex earlier so were getting married earlier and having children earlier.
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What were children seen as?
An economic asset.
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What was houses and streets like in the 1900's?
They were badly planned and built. They were very overcrowded with families of 10 living in small houses. There was little sanitation and towns were polluted with sewage waste and factory fumes.
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What was it like for the working class people in the 1900's?
Workers were exploited by bosses. They were made to work long hours for little pay, in dangerous conditions. They had poor diets and there was no free medical help or benefits. Family members looked after each other.
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When working class people couldn't manage, where did they go?
Workhouse.
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How many babies born in the slum died before they were one?
Nearly half.
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What types of societies did Parsons argue that there were?
Pre-industrial and Industrial.
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What does Parsons believe about society?
The family must change to meet the needs of society. This means in pre-industrial Britain, the family was extended but now it is nuclear as Britain has been industrialised.
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What does Parsons call the change from one type of family to another?
The Theory of Functional Fit.
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Why does a nuclear family best fit the industrial society?
Because it is small and mobile so it can travel around for work. It also cuts ties with extended family members, making it easier to be socially mobile, providing competitive workers which is good for society economy.
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What does Parsons believe is the most common family type in society today?
Nuclear family which is privatised and isolated/
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What is a privatised nuclear family?
A two generational family, normally parents and children, who have cut ties with extended family members.
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What is the Neo Conventional Family?
It was founded by Chester and it is a two generational family, normally parents and children, with duel workers (mom and dad).
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Who disagrees with Parsons and Chester, regarding the history of the family?
Laslett, Anderson, Bell and Census Data.
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Why did Laslett disagree?
Laslett studied parish records and found prior the ind rev, nuclear families were common amongst the poor because people married later, had children later and died young.
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Why did Anderson disagree?
He believed as industry progressed, families grew and became classic extended. People moved to towns to find work, met partners earlier, had children earlier and because there was no contraception, had more children.
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How did Census Data help prove Parson and Chesters thoeries wrong?
Census data shows that between 1841 and 1901, families grew vertically and horizontally.
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Why did Bell disagree?
Bell studied families in Swansea and found that even when couples married and moved away from their parents, they still kept in close contact with relatives. He concluded that the family isn't nuclear but is modified extended.
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What do the sociologists Rapoports agree and argue on?
They agree that the family structure has changed as society has progressed but argue that the nuclear family is not the most common type.
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Why do they believe this?
Although people live in a nuclear household, they are still likely to belong to an extended family network. They also believe today there is a diversity of family types and the type of family a person lives in would depend upon choice and circumstanc
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What do the Rapoports believe?
They believe there is a diversity of family types which now exist in industrial Britain and individuals choose what type of family they belong to.
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What 5 different family diversities do they identify?
Cultural Diversity, Life Stage Diversity, Organisational Diversity, Genernational Diversity and Social Class Diversity.
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What is Cultural Diversity?
Different cultures, ethnic groups and religions have different family structures which are influenced by their norms and values. Eg, there are many matrifocal families amongst blacks but very few in Asian families.
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What is Life Stage Diversity?
The type of family a person belongs to will change according to the stage of their life they have reached.
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What is Organisational Diversity?
This refers to differences in the same way family roles are organised eg some couples have joint conjugal roles and some have segregated conjugal roles.
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What is Generational Diversity?
Older and younger generations have different attitudes and experiences. This may influence their views on the mortality of divorce, single parenthood and cohabitation.
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What is Social Class Diversity?
The different household structures are partially as a result of income differences between the different social classes. Also, there are class differences in the way children are brought up.
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What is the family life cycle?
It looks at how people belong to different types of family and household throughout their lives, and how the families they belong to change with their circumstances.
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What did Eversly and Bonnerjea find out?
Different types of family structure develops in different areas of a country.
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What types of family are commonly found in areas where the population is mainly working class and there are high unemployment rates?
Classic extended families.
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What types of family are commonly found in coastal areas?
Retired couples.
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What types of family are commonly found in prosperous areas like the South?
Neo conventional families.
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What types of family are found in inner city areas?
Single person household and single parent families.
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What do Bonnerjea and Eversly believe?
That most families belong to a modified extended family.
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What reasons do people move to Britain for?
Work, family, prosecution.
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Why work?
Unemployment would impact someone to move away from their home. People are pushed out of their country through unemployment and pulled towards a country that have better standards of living and more jobs.
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Why family?
People are often pulled towards a country where they already have family who can support them in finding a place to live and a job etc.
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Why prosecution?
People flee prosecution based on ethnicity, religion, gender, sexuality and political beliefs and are pulled towards countries where they have more freedom.
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What did the sociologist Driver study?
Asian Families in Britain and compared them to Asian families in their country of origin.
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What did he find out about the families who live in the country they originate from?
They are large and classic extended, arranged marriages are the common norm, families are patriarchal, wives live with their husbands relatives, single parenthood and divorce is rare, many women work within the home.
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What did he find out about the families who live in this country?
Families tend to be a mixture of classic extended and modified extended, arranged marriages are still the norm for some families but is less common, families are patriarchal, wives live in area of husbands family and work outside home.
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What did Driver conclude?
Although there has been changes in Asian families in Britain, they have been minor and western culture has failed to have a strong influence of family life. They also keep in close contact with extended family members in their country of origin.
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What else did Driver study?
Black families.
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What did Driver find out about Black families?
He found at 51% of all black families with children in the UK are headed by a single parent, compared to 25% of families as a whole. The majority of these families are headed by a female.
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What are the reasons for high unemployment amongst black males?
Because of racism by employers and lack of qualifications. This can put black families under financial pressure and more prone to divorce.
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What are the reasons for high divorce rate amongst black families?
Black females seem to be highly educated and asertive, families are matriarchal and they are unlikely to tolerate bad behaviour from a male partner.
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What is another reason for high divorce rate amongst black families?
High number of black males in prison means that they are either absent fathers from a 2 parent family or are more likely to be at risk of divorce. Unemployment may lead to more black men committing crimes.
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What did the sociologist Mirza find out?
Amongst two parent families, the families tended to be matriarchal, with the female taking the lead in most decision making. Both single parent and two parent families were still part of an extended family network, with relatives helping out.
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How many white families in the UK are headed by a single parent?
23%
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How many families in the UK are headed by a single parent?
25%
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How many Asian families in the UK are headed by a single parent?
10%
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How many black families in the UK are headed by a single parent?
51%
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What percentage of single parent families are headed by a woman?
90%
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Until the 1950's, what was the biggest cause of single parent families?
Death of a partner.
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By 1990, what was the biggest cause of single parent families?
Divorce.
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What is the biggest cause of single parent families now?
Non-marriage and divorce.
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What is the average age for a woman to have her first child?
30
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What is a reason for growth in single parent families?
The greater economic independence of women. Women are better educated and more employable. They are more financially independent and can therefore survive without a partner. They dominate the majority of the service sector.
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What is another reason for growth in single parent families?
Changing social attitudes. Three is less stigma attached to single parents and social attitudes are changing, mainly due to the decline in religious beliefs and practices. People are choosing to divorce or not marry at all.
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What is another reason for growth in single parent families?
Reproductive technology allows women to have children without a partner eg IVF.
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What did the sociologist Cashmore find out?
That most single mothers from working class backgrounds relied on welfare benefits to raise their children. Children raised in working class single parent families are twice as likely to suffer from material deprivation.
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What does material deprivation mean?
Lack of money to not be able to afford basic necessities like food, shelter, heating, clothing etc.
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What is the New Right?
It is a conservative party who believe that welfare benefits are too generous and the availability of these benefits has encouraged growth of single parent families.
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What do the New Right believe?
That a nuclear, two parent, heterosexual family is the best family for children to be brought up in. It provides children with two positive role models and socialised children into a good set of morals and values.
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What does Charles Murray believe?
Single parent families are the most 'single evil of our time'. Children who lack 2 positive role models often fail in education, are unemployable and turn to crime. They have no work ethic and depend on the state.
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What is a Burden of Dependency?
Being dependent upon state benefits which created a burden on those in society who work and pay taxes.
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What are the criticisms of the New Right?
Not all children from single parent families under achieve at school and turn to crime.It is better for children to have 1 loving parent than 2 who argue.Parents may still be in contact with their child. Kids from 2 parent families turn to crime too.
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What percentage of single parent families do teenage moms account for?
5%
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What ways could the government prevent teenage pregnancies?
Better sex education classes, more education on contraception and better family planning facilities for young people.
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Why has family sizes decreased in size?
Because of a decline in the birth rate and the fertility rate.
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Why did women have large numbers of children in the 1800's?
Religion, high infant mortality rate, married earlier, abortion was frowned upon, they could make children work, lack of contraception.
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Why has the birth rate gone down this century?
Women are more educational, they have children later, they have jobs/careers, abortions are legal in UK, more contraception.
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Why did the birth rate rise after both World Wars?
Couples had children that they put off during war, lack of contraception, less population, partners missed each other so were passionate.
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Why did the birth rate rise in 1960's?
The babies born in the war would be having kids, immigrants came over to work, had an economic boom so people celebrated.
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Why did the birth rate rise in 2006?
Immigrants from Eastern Europe came over and had large families.
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In 1943, what percentage of women were childless?
11%
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In 1953, what percentage of women were childless?
16%
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Today, what percentage of women are childless?
28%
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Why are men and women choosing not to have children?
More opportunities to travel etc some women are choosing careers over children. Changing values means more freedom and choice. Changing attitudes of society means you aren't viewed negatively if you don't have kids.
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Why are men and women choosing not to have children?
Fertility control means reliable and free contraception and legal abortion laws to allow women to have more control over their bodies. Cost of bringing up a child is expensive.
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Why do some people chose to never marry?
They chose to remain single, they fail to find a suitable partner.
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What are some reasons to stay single?
May not want a partner, some see it as having a partner means giving up independence, may not find anyone, careers may hold them back, previous experiences may put them off.
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Who lives in a single person household?
People who have gotten divorced, people who choose to be on their own and widows.
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What is Living Apart Together?
People who are in a relationship but chose to not live together due to various reasons.
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What are reasons for growth in LATs?
Partners might live or work in different areas, may not want to give up their independence or may have responsibilities like looking after children or older relatives.
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What percentage do reconstituted families make up in the UK?
10%
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Why are more children in a reconstituted family from the mother?
Mothers normally retain custody of the child when there has been a seperation.
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Why are step families more likely to suffer from poverty?
Because financially the absent parent has to support children from previous relationships and a current relationship.
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What are other problems step families may face?
Maintaining contact with the family of the absent parent, conflict between step children and step parents and siblings.
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When did adoption for same sex couples become legal?
2005.
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When did gay marriage become legal?
2014.
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What ways can gay couples become parents?
Adoption, fostering, artificial insemination and surrogacy.
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What laws have made it easier for gay people to adopt?
Civil Partnership 2004, Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008, and Gay Marriage 2014.
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What may put men off using surrogacy?
The father doesn't have legal rights over the baby until the mother signs the adoption papers.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is urbanisation?

Back

Moving from rural areas (countryside) to urban areas (towns and cities). This made the population grow due to people meeting the opposite sex earlier so were getting married earlier and having children earlier.

Card 3

Front

What were children seen as?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was houses and streets like in the 1900's?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was it like for the working class people in the 1900's?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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