Globalisation, green crime, human rights and state crimes 1

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  • Globalisation, green crime, human rights and state crimes 1
    • Crime and globalisation
      • Globalisation - increasing interconnected -ness of societies and has many causes such as ICT, global mass media, cheap air travel.
      • Held - globalisation of crime - the  increasing interconnected -ness of crime acrss national borders, and the spread of transnational organised crime.
      • Castells - global criminal economy worth over £1 trillon per year, including trafficking arms and nuclear weapons, smuggling of illegal immigrants, green crime and terrorism.
      • Drugs trade is worth $300-400 billion annualy at street prices.
      • Globalisation creates new insecurities as it's seen as global e.g. economic migrants and asylum seekers have given rise to anxieties in Western countries.
      • Resulting in the intensification of social contorl at the national level e.g. UK tightens broder control regulations.
      • Taylor - globalisation has lead to greater inequality, as transnational corporations can switch manufacturing to low-wage countries to increase profit.
      • Deregulation means there is little control over economies and state spending on welfare as declined.
      • Therefore, this has produced rising crime, as among the poor, greater insecurity encourages people to turn to crime.
      • For the elite, globalisation creates large-scale criminal opportunities e.g. deregulation of financial market - insider trading and tax evasion.
      • New employment patterns create new opportunities for crime, e.g. 'flexible workers' often illegal.
      • Taylor's theory doesn't explain why many poor people don't turn to crime.
    • Patterns of criminal organisation
      • 1. 'Glocal' organisation
        • Hobbs & Dunningham - the way crime is organised is linked to globalisation as it involves individuals acting as a 'hub' which forms a loose-knit network, often linking legit and illegal activities.
        • Different to 'Mafia' style, and conclude that crime works as a 'glocal' system - locally based, but with global connections.
      • 2. McMafia
        • Glenny - emerged in Russia and Eastern Europe after the fall of communism.
        • New Russian government deregulated much of the economy, leading to huge rises in food prices and rent.
        • Commodity prices kept at the same old Soviet prices, below average world market. So well-connected citizens with large funds could buy these cheap and sell them on the world market.
        • This created a new elite 'oligarchs' and to protect themselves they turned to the new 'mafia' ex-state security from the old communist regime.
        • These criminal organisations were vital for the entry of the new Russian capitalist class into the world economy.

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