Demography: Globalisation & Migration

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  • Globalisation + Migration
    • The rate of migration is increasing. For example, according to the UN (2013), between 2000 and 2013 it increased by 33% to reach 232 mil.
    • Differentiation
      • There are many types migrants: permanent settlers, temporary workers, spouses and forced migrants such as refugees and asylum seekers.
        • Globalisation is increasing the diversity of migrants.
      • Steven Vertovec (2007) believes that globalisation has led to 'super-diversity'. Even within a single ethnic group, they differ in terms of their legal status.
      • There are also class differences, Robin Cohen (2006) distinguishes 3 types of migrant:
        • Citizens: with full citizenship rights. Denizens: privileged foreign nationals welcomed by the state. Helots: the most exploited group, slaves, found in unskilled work
    • The feminisation of migration
      • Enrenreich and Hochschild (2003) observe that care work, domestic work and sex work in domestic countries is done by women in poorer countries. This is a result of several trends:
        • The expansion of service occupations in W countries has led to an increasing demand for female labour.
        • W women have joined the labour force and are less willing or able to perform domestic labour
        • W men are unwilling to perform domestic labour.
        • The failure of the state to provide adequate childcare.
    • Migrant Identities
      • There are multiple sources of identity: family, friends, ethnicity, religion etc.
        • Eade ( 1994) found that second gen Bangladeshi Muslims in Britain created hierarchical identities. Those with hybrid identities get accused of not 'fitting in'
      • Transnational identites
        • Hylland Eriksen (2007) agrees globalisation has created more diversity with back and forth movements rather than a permanent settlement.
          • As a result, migrants don't see themselves as belonging to one culture or country, instead they form transnational identities and loyalties.
        • The globalised economy means that migrants  may have more links to other migrants around the world.
    • The pollicisation of migration
      • Assimi-lationism was the first state policy approach to immigration. It aimed to encourage immigrants to adopt the countries culture etc. However transnational immigrants are unwilling to give up their culture.
        • Castles (2000) argues that assimilationist policies are counter-productive because they mark out minority groups as culturally backward or 'other'.
          • This can lead to minorities responding by emphasising their difference. This increases suspicion and may promote anti-terrorism policies that target them. This breeds further marginal-isation, defeating the goal of assimilation.
      • Multiculturism accepts that migrants have a separate cultural identity. Eriksen distinguishes between 'shallow diversity' and 'deep diversity':
        • Shallow diversity: such as regarding chicken tikka masala as Britain's nat-ional dish, is acceptable to the state
        • Deep diversity: such as arranged marriages or the veiling of women, is not acceptable to the state
        • Critics argue that multiculturism education policies celebrate shallow diversity while failing to address problems facing migrant children such as racism
      • Assimilationist ideas may also encourage workers to blame migrants for social problems resulting in racial scapegoating. According to Castles and Kosack (1973), this benefits capitalism by creating a racially divided working class.

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