Demography

Population Growth

Demography: study of the population, factors effecting its size and growth. Whether a population is growing, declining or stable is dependant on 4 factors

  • Births and immigration increase pop.
  • Deaths and emmigration decrease pop.

Natural change = number of births - number of deaths

Net Migration = number immigrating - number emmigrating

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Births

Birth Rate- number of live births per 1000 of population 

  • long term decline of birth rate. In 1900 it was 29, by 2014 it was 12.2
  • baby booms x3: after WWI and WWII and in 60s. Rate fell in 70s

Total Fertility Rate- average number of children per woman will have in fertile years (15-44). In 60s baby boom, reached average of 2.95, declining to all time low of 1.63 in 2001. Two important trends:

  • more women remain childless nowadays
  • women have children later (after 30)
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Reasons for fall in Birth rate

Changes in position of women- increased educational opportunities, more women working, changes in attitudes, easy access to divorce

Fall in infant mortality rate-the number of infants who die before 1st birthday per 1000 babies born per year. In 1900 it was 154, in 2016 it was 4. If more babies survive their is less of a need to have so many

Children as economic liabilities-child labour and education laws mean children remain economically dependant for longer, changing norms about childrens right to high standard of living raises cost

Child-centeredness- childhood is socially constructed as uniquely importnat period of life, shift from quantity to quality in parenting 

Effects of falling birth rate-

  • Dependancy ratio: relationship between working pop. size and non-working (depednant) size. Working pop. taxes and earnings upport dependant pop. (children= large portion)
  • Public Services: fewer schools and child health services needed, less maternity and paternity leave 
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Deaths and reasons for fall in death rate

Number of deaths: stable since 1900, a few fluctuations (world wars and 1918 flu epidemic)

Death Rate: number of deaths per 1000 of populationper year, has halved since 1900 (19 into 8.9)

Reasons for fall in Death rate:

  • Improved nutrition- increases pop.resistance to infection
  • Medical improvements- vaccines, antibiotics, maternity services
  • Public health improvements- housing, purer water, clean air
  • Other social changes- decline in dangerous manual work

Life Expectancy: how long on average a person in a given year can expect to live, greatly increased since 1900:

  • babies born in 1900- 50 years (male), 57 years (female)
  • babies born is 2013- 90.7 years (male), 94 years (female)
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The Ageing Population

Three main reasing for increase in ageing population:

  • increased life expectancy
  • low infant mortality
  • declining fertility

Effect of ageing population: an ageing population has several social and economic effects

  • public services- elderly consume more service
  • more than 1 person pensioner households
  • rising dependancy ratio
  • ageism
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Ageism, Modernity and Postmodernity

Old age in modern society- life is structured in fixed stages and age-related identities (ie pupil, worker or pensioner). Our identity is determined by our role in production, so those excluded from production have a dependant status and stigmatised identity

Old age in postmodern society- fixed stages of life break down, gives individul greater choice of lifestyle. Consumption not production becomes key to identitty

Inequality among the old- middle class have bigger pensions and longer life expectancy, womens lower wage and role in employment lead to a smaller pension, subject to sexist as well as ageist stereotyping 

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Migration

Migration is the movement of people, can be internal or external. It effects the size and age structure of population. Until 80s more people left UK than entered it 

Immigration- from 1900-40s largest group was Irish, very few from non-white decent. During 50-70s non-white immigrants began to come from Carribbean and Africa. By 2011, minorty ethnic groups accounted for 14% of population. Most were Irish or European

Emigration- Most emigrants go to USA, Canada, Australia etc. Main reasons:

  • 'Push factors'- unemplyed and economic recession
  • 'Pull factors'- higher wages or better opportunities
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Globalisation and Migration

Globalisation is producing increased migration. We can identify several trends:

Differentiation: many types of migrant (settlers, temporary workers, spouses, refugees, asylem seekers). Super-diversity is when migrants come from many many different countries, and any given ethnic group can be firther split into sub-cultures or religions. There are class differences among migrants:

  • Citizens- have full rights
  • Denizens- priveleged foreign nationals
  • Helots- disposable labour power found in unskilled, poorly paid work

Feminisation of Migration: almost half global immigrants are female, this has resaulted in globalisation of gender division of labour

Migrant identities: Migrants often develop 'hybrid identities'- dont fit in with either countires 

Migration and politics: Assimilation aims to enchorage immigrants to adopt language, values and customs of host culture, multiculturalism accepts migrants may wish to retain seperate culture , a dividing working class  (workers may blame migrants for unemployment -benefits capitalist)

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