Globalisation in the Roman Empire

  • Created by: Lauriie
  • Created on: 18-04-19 14:17
View mindmap
  • Globalisation in the late Roman Empire
    • Theoretical Perspectives
      • Romanisation
        • Millet: role of elites, who drew on the symbols of Romanitas to reinforce their power
        • Versluys: Romanisation as 'objects in motion'
      • Mediterraneanisation
        • emphasizes the connectedne** of the Mediterranean basin and the fluidity of the movement of people, goods, and ideas. The new Mediterraneanism is part of a larger movement treating the Mediterranean as an analytic unit. This movement is a response to contemporary globalization.Morris 2003
          • The three concepts of mobility, connectivity, and decentring are at the heart of recent historical/anthropological treatments of the Mediterranean
            • Globalizing pre-modern history does three things. First, it makes ancient and medieval history good to think with: they can serve as metaphors for thinking through, celebrating, or criticizing what is going on around us. Second, it may make the distant past interesting to audiences that otherwise see little point to it.
              • All history engages with presentism, and that is usually what makes it interesting.
              • '1. We should think about proce**es of Mediterraneanization rather than a static Mediterraneanism.2. Interconnection did not make institutions, states, and empires cease to matter...4. Just like globalization, Mediterraneanization created winners and losers.'
      • Globalisation
        •  the interconnectivity, human mobility, scale, and diversity of the globalized Roman world
        • pretty much agreement that globalisation existed, the question is how and why? Looking at other parts f the empire rather than just rome.
        • important post colonial critique: can these narratives serve to legitimise the west's current globalisation project and, though language such as 'negotiation' delegitimise teh real violence taht takes place as part f globalisation?
          • How to deal with this- Rome as part of multiple globalisations, not the only one or the precedent.
            • early Rome was itself a glocalization of Greek culture on the periphery of an East Mediterranean network.
      • Glocalisation
        • 'the effects arising from the interaction between local and global phenomena, recognising the space for a dialectical relationship between these two scales'
          • 'grand narratives' which have sought to explain large-scale proce**es such as the 'agricultural revolution' or Romanization, have often overlooked local variations.
            • is this really fair, or a bit of a strawman?
          • while the glocalization concept provides us with an attention-grabbing analytical perspective to study the intertwining of globalization and localization (and the in-between levels of regionalization and nationalization), it does not provide us with a decisive theory explaining the human mechanics behind these proce**es.
        • Barrett: It can be valuable shorthand for the dialectic that exists between the global and the local. Glocalization encapsulates the tendency for local expre**ions of distinctivene** to become pronounced in contexts of increasing interconnectedne**-rather than in relative isolation
          • Example of island communities: the unique material culture of many island communities is as much a result of extensive maritime interaction as of difficult acce**.
            • 'In the Viking Age, for example, there is evidence for both an extremely widespread expansion of related cultural phenomena  and of highly localized variants Emphasizing one or the other, we could argue about whether the Viking Age ever existed as a meaningful phenomenon or unit of analysis. Glocalization allows us to recognize that efflorescences of local practices are likely responses to universalizing tendencies1 rather than the opposite.'
            • in practice glocalization phenomena can make the material culture of highly networked societies very different from the groups with whom they are in contact. 
              • Coins- viking age scandinavians rarely used west european coins for their indented purpose but would use coins from much farther away
    • Long Distance Trade
      • Connections with the Steppes
        • ancient rome and the eurasian trade networks
          • Maes Titianos trade exedition: roman empire --> north china (overland) the main motive is to obtain chinese silk. The journey as recorded took 2 years
            • trade envoy of kan ying in 97 ce: was stopped at the western frontier of persioa, but aiming for rome. There were attempts to establish cntacts between opposite ends of the slk road.
          • silk was a special luxury good in rome. Once it arrived in Rome, chinese silk products were unwoven and remade into a thinner, shinier textile.
            • again, trade not a straight line, people living along teh silk road played a important role
              • sa**anians: earned money from tarriffs on bith. They were also producers, consumers, and traders
              • samarkand: Uzbek city on the middle of the silk road.
        • The huns- linked to the Xiongnu of east steppes?
          • cauldrons apper in both east mongolia and european hunnic a**emblages, but used in very differnt ways.
            • materials of the late Xiongnu period from Mongolia, Transbaikalia, and the Altai have been found in graves of the Black Sea region in C1/C2. These findings reflect the connectivity and network of a steppe elite in the vast space of Eurasia. 
      • Trans Saharan trade in Roman time: short, medium and long distance networks
        • Route ran through the Garamantes- beyond the garamantes to sub saharan africa
          • some argue: this trade as only minor- ivory, furs, maybe the occasional animal
          • arcaheological evidence
            • long chronology of contacts between Rome and the Garamantes, developed in the first few centuries AD
              • T-S trade was also critical to the Garamantian economy.
              • rock salt traded from garamantes to ** africa in return for gold and slaves. gold and slaves then traded to med in return for other trade goods.
                • some of this trade also pa**ed through garamantes, po**ibly without stopping- exotic animal skins, precious stones, ivory
              • sahara not just a 'pa**ing point'- there are interlocking systems of trade, 'following regional economics rather than trans-saharan design' (scheele 2010)
                • trade was not a straight line, there were local systems at work.
          • multiple scales; there are short distance contacts acro** the frontier
            • contact between the empire and the people just beyond the frontier: the wadis of the predesert and northern oases. traffic in livestock and wild animals, seasonal labour
            • pre-desert steppe in northern sahara---> syria: elephants and leoparde** traded for the arena
          • medium distance contacts: between oasis communities. gems especially carnelian beads are traded
          • long distance:
            • med-garamantian :goods imported to fazzan such as african red slip ware, tuniisan and tripoli amphorae po**bly containingoil/wine/fish, lamps, gla** and jewellery
              • uniquity of imported pottery- this want just an elite good, it was widely available in garamantian society.
            • interlocking of the saharan trade routes with the sub saharan.
            • the garamantes was not exchanging roman goods direct for slaves. it was producing things both sides wanted.
      • key concepts: interlocking networks, local agency, multiple scales.
      • Indo-Roman Trade:
        • Textual sources- Periplus of the Erythrean Sea. Other texts including indian ones such as the arthasastra, but this is later.
          • other sources of info: hoards of roman coins, mostly found in south and south west india
            • pottery: amphorae and terrasigilata found in india. Luxury pottery of Indian make, especially rouletted ware, exported to the west
        • spices and aromatics were the driving force of indian ocean trade; cinnamon, pepper
        • how do we get from provenance to trade routes
          • there doesn't nece**arily have to be a straight line (eg romans in india could have been relatively rare.) Indirect trade routes, eg through alexandria, were probably popular.
    • Frontier interactions
      • see second mind map 'the late roman frontiers'

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Archaeology resources:

See all Archaeology resources »See all Late Antiquity resources »