ARC 1010 key terms

ancestor of /Homo sapiens/
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ancestor of great apes
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primate family - present day
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New World Monkeys
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Basal Hominins
25-3.3 mya
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Old World Monkeys
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Lesser Apes
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Great Apes (orang-utan)
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Great Apes (gorilla)
7-8 mya
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Great Apes (chimpanzee)
6-7 mya
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Lower Paleolithic
3.3 mya-300 kya
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Middle Paleolithic
300 kya-48 kya
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Upper Paleolithic
48 kya-12 kya
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Human similarity to chimp
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Human similarity to gorilla
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Chimp-human divergence
5-10 mya
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Gorilla-human divergence
8-19 mya
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Hominid in Chad
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
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Hominids in Ethiopia
Aramis, Ardipithecus ramidus
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Hominids in Kenya/Tanzania
Kanapoi, Orrorin tugenensis
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Where is Olduvai Gorge
Tanzania, E of Serengeti
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1st early human species in Olduvai Gorge
Homo habilis (1.9 mya)
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Who else occupied Olduvai Gorge?
Australopithecine, Paranthropus boisei, Homo erectus, Homo sapiens
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How many Hominin species
20 - 25
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Sahelanthropus tchadensis date
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Ardipithecus ramidus date
4.5-4.3 mya
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Australopithecus afarensis (d8 and place)
4-3 mya, East Africa
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3.6 mya, footprints in Tanzania
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How many sets of footprints at Laetoli
3: big, medium, small
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When did general cooling trend begin
3.3 mya
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Australopithecine world dates
6/8-3.5 mya
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Homo habilis
Hadar, Ethiopia, 2.4-1.4 mya (500=650cm3 brain)
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What does Homo habilis mean?
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Homo rudolfensis
1.9 mya (700-850cm3 brain)
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Earliest stone tools
Lomekwian and Oldowan
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Lomekwian tools (place and d8)
Lomekwi, Kenya 3.3 mya
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Oldowan tools (place and d8)
Kadar, Gona (Ethiopia) 2.6 mya
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Who is famous example of modern chimp knapping
Kanzi, 9 y/o captive male bonobo
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Earliest evidence for meat access using stone tools
Dikika, Ethiopia (3.39 mya) & Herto Bouri (2.5 mya)
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The Acheulian (dates)
~1.8 mya - ~100 kya
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Which Homos emerged in Mid Palaeo?
Homo neanderthalensis & anatomically modern Homo sapeins
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Skeletally modern H. sapiens found when/where?
Omo Kibish (195kya), Herto Bouri (160kya), Florisbad (250kya), Klasies River Mouth (>90kya)
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When does ev for abstract symbols appear in Levant & Africa
100 kya
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Sites of 1st abstract symbols
Blombos Cave, Klasies River Mouth, Diepkloof rockshelter
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How many pieces in Blombos cave showed delib. moderation
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Name of shell beads at Blombos and their technical name
68 found, Nassarius kraussianus
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How many eggshells in Diepkloof found intentionally marked
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When were fossils anatomically inditinguishable from modern humans in Africa?
250 kya
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When was arch. recognisable symbolic behaviour apparent?
100 kya
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When did Neanderthals live?
435 kya
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Did Neanderthals take care of the sick and elderly?
Yes - evidence in Shanidar, Iraq proves this
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How long did Neanderthals survive in Eurasia?
100 kya
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When were Neanderthals extinct by?
40 kya
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When did humans and Neanderthals interbreed?
65-50 kya
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How much Neanderthal DNA do non sub-Saharan Africans carry today?
up to 2.1%
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Who else did humans breed with?
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How much denisovan DNA do modern people carry?
up to 6% in Melanesians
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When was first domestication, and of what?
Dog in Europe 30-20 kya
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By what time were most farmers domesticating plants
12-10 kya
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Where was 1st farming
Fertile crescent in modern Iraq, Levantine corridor, and Iranian border
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How long was Aleppo Citadel occupied for?
8000 years
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How old is Jericho?
11 kya, built at the beginning of the Holocene
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How many successive settlements has Jericho had?
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Kabaran / Epipalaeolithic 1 (dates)
20,000-13,000 BCE
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Key site in Kabaran/Epipalaeolithic 1
Ohalo II
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When/Where was Ohalo II
21,000 BCE, Israel
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How many seeds and plant remains found at Ohalo II
150,000 seed and fruit specimens rep 140 individual plant species
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Natufian / Epipalaeolithic 2 (dates and characterised by)
13,000-9,500 BCE, Sedentism
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Key Natufian sites
Jericho, Ain Mallaha, Abu Hureyra, & Mureybet
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Pre-pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) (d8s & char'd by)
9,500-8,500 BCE, Plants
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Key PPNA sites
Abu Hureyra, & Mureybit
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Pre-pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) (d8s & char'd by)
8,500-6,500 BCE, Animals
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Key PPNB sites
Ain Ghazal
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Pottery Neolithic
6,500-4,500 BCE
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Key Pottery Neolithic sites
Abu Hureyra & Catal Huyul
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Who carried out experiments on selective domestication
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How long did Hillman say it would take to create domestic plant varieties?
200 yrs, min 20 yrs with not conscious selection of grains
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When was Tel Abu Hureyra
11,000 BCE
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When were Processual models for Holocene development popular?
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What were processual models condemned as being?
"deterministic", downplaying choices of "social actors"
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Who emphasised post-processual, household transition to nuclear family?
Ian Hodder (1990)
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What did Hodder talk about/introduce
domestication of soc, emergence of hierarchical, delayed-return org. DOMUS
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What era was the Glacial Maximum
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What era was the Bolling-Allerod Interstadial
Early Natufian
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What era was the Younger Dryas
Late Natufian
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What era was the Early Holocene
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What were the key variables of the last 1/2my palaeoenvironment?
termperature and rainfall
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What is 'Normal Surplus' and who coined the phrase?
P. Halstead (1989) = keeping seeds to plant next year but producing enough to be relatively secure
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Who said animals had secondary product value?
A Sherratt
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Linearbandkeramik (LBK)
named after decorated pottery style, 5500-4500 BCE, Central Europe
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What did the 'Neolithic package' include?
New: material culture, economy, ways of thinking
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Where were New World Agricultural centres of domestication
Africa, N/S America, E & Asia, & Melanesia
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Key agricultural sites in Mesoamerica
Tehuacan Valley & Valley of Oaxaca
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When were first domesticates in Mesoamerica
8000 BCE (e.g. Guila Naquitz)
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Initially used 7000BCE, appears in Guila Naquitz and Coxcatlan Caves 3,500-4,500 BCE
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What was the original maize
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Domestication in Mesoamerica
began 8000BCE, by 2500BCE still only ~25% of food from agro
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When were first permanent villages in Mesoamerica
2500 BCE
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Which direction did food production spread in Mesopotamia?
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Which direction did food production spread in Mesoamerica?
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Which direction of food prod spread is more rapid?
E-W bc latitudes require less evolutionary change/adaptation in domesticates
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Who did Lord Curzon appoint as new D-G of ASI in 1902
John Marshall
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What was John Marshall's +imp contribution to arc?
discovery of the Indus civilisation
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When did Marshall retire?
1928, aged 52
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Which excavation sites char'd the Indus discovery?
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
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What was found in Harappan sites of interest?
Stamp seals
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Which site was discovered in Pakistan in 1970s/80s?
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How long was the Mehrgarh excavation?
15/16 years by J.F. Jarrige of Musee Guimet, Paris
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What was Mehrgarh
Multi-phase neolithic community habitation on banks of Bolan river at meeting of Baluchistan highlands and Indus plain
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Indus farming village communities
7000-4300 BCE
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Mehrgarh period I & II was 1 of what?
50 sites in Baluchian region
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Dev. of village farming comms and pastoral sox
4300-3200 BCE, 650 sites incl Mehrgarh III
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When was Early Harappan
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What do we now call the Early Harappan
Regionalisation Era
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What expansion occurred in Regionalisation Era
Into Lower Indus Valley (Potwar Plateau, Sindh, Punjab, Haryana, N. Rajastan, Gujurat)
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Notable pottery groupings in R. Era
Amri/Nal (SE), Kot Diji (C Indus), & Hakra (N now dried course of Ghaggar/Hakra river)
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Regionalised sites in Baluchistan
Mehrgarh and Nausharo
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Early Harappan - Mature Harappan Transition
2600-2500 BCE
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Early/Mature Harappan transition was...
Pt 1 of Integration Era
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Mature Harappan (d8)
2500-1900 BCE
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Mature Harappan was...
Pt 2 of Integration Era
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Define Integration Era
Pd of state level control and stratification, major change in social organisation, bringing together diverse populations or large settlements
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Key Mature Harappan sites
Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, Dholavira, Kalabangan, Amri, Lothal, Kalakot, Kot Diji
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What ratio were standardised Mohenjo-daro bricks
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Mohenjo-Daro (MHD) location and pop
5km from Indus, est pop 40,000
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'Post-Urban' sites/ Localisation Era
When things started going wrong in cities
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MHD decline and end?
2200BCE (decline), ended by 2000BCE
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When was 1st use of metals in China
4th/3rd millenium BCE (proto-dynastic period)
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1st sites of metal use in China
Gansu and other N sites, from W (Xinjiang), to E (Liaoning and Shandong)
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Longshan sites: Shandong
3000-2000 BCE (proto-dynastic, 3rd millenium)
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Dynastic period: Xia
1700-1600 BCE
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Dynastic period: Shang
Early Bronze Age 1500-1027 BCE
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Shang dynasty sites:
Erlitou sites, Henan
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Sanxingdui, Sichuan
Outside central plains, Shang culture, bronze figures (3m) cultural expression
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What found in Sanxingdui?
60 tusks, 735 bronzes, 61 golds, 486 jades, turquoise, ivory, teeth, shells
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Jinsha, W Zhou period
near Sanxingdui (now Chengdu city), inspo for Avatar
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Zhou Dynasty
1050-256 BCE
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W Zhou
1050-771 BCE
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E Zhou
771-481 BCE 'Spring' and 'Autumn' periods
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E Zhou: Warring states period
403-221 BCE
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Qin Dynasty
221 BCE 1st Emperor
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Han Dynasty
202 BCE - 220 CE
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3 factors that affect dev of urban centres:
Geography & topography, Function, & Society
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What were the 1st city states
Mesopotamia, Sumer, Babylonia, Syria, Canaan (mod Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria)
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What proportion of early dynastic Mesopotamians lived in the city
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What proportion of early dynastic Mesopotamian city dwellers were farmers?
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What is larger than a city state
A territorial state
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What hierarchies of admin centres do territorial states have
Local, Provincial, National
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Kahun (d8s)
12th Dynasty, c.1870 BCE
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What does Akhet-aten mean?
horizon of the sun-disc
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Who build Akhet-aten and how long did it take?
Built by Akhenaten l8 18th Dynasty, took 5 years
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Sesebi, Nubia (d8s)
18th Dynasty, reign of Akhenaten, c. 1350 BCE
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Deir el-Medina d8s
1470-1100 BCE
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Who was Deir el-Medina build for?
royal artisans at Thebes
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What was the first large territorial state?
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When was Kushite?
3000-1450 BCE
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Kerma d8s
2500-1450 BCE
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Meroe d8s
1000 BCE-500 CE
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How many times was Kerma's 'Great Hut' rebuilt?
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When was Meroe's 'Royal City' enclosed
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What city states were in Greece and the Aegean world
Thebes (Greece), Kolossos (Crete), Troy (Turkey)
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When was Greece and the Aegean world active
Middle to Late Bronze Ages
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Mycenae d8s
Late Helladic c.1350 BCE
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What is 'municipia'?
loyal communities rewarded, often for military service and spreads citizenship
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What are 'ius Latii'?
Latin rights, route to roman citizenship in Italy and republican provinces
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What are 'ius Italicum'?
rights granted to communities as if they were in Italy
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Examples of urban centres with roman citizenship
Sabratha & Lepcis, Libya
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What did Gaul move from and to?
from tribes to civitates
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3 things Romans built
town enclosures, defensive units, public buildings
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cold water plunge
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swimming pool
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warm water pool
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hot water pool
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dressing room
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exercise hall
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Est pop of Rome
1 million
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Est pop of Carthage
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Est pop of Cologne, Lyon
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Gods of Sabratha
Tanit - Juno Caelestis, Baal-Hammon Saturn, El, Melqart - Herakles, Isis, Serapis
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How did the people of Lepcis Magna die?
In a flood
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7 types of metals:
hard/scoft, (re)shaped, wire, sharp, colour/lustre, ring/tone, (un)common
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what are the 2 stages of the metallurgical process?
1. making metal, 2. making artefacts from metal
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In the metallurgical process, which stage is (ir)reversible?
1. irreversible, 2. reversible
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Examples of arc mines
Great Orme, Wales (copper); Kestel Mine, Turkey (copper and tin)
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Define: ore
a mixture of desirable metal minerals, unwanted minerals, and 'country' (surrounding) rock
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Define: ore deposit
bodies of rock containing sufficiently high concentrations of desirable metal minerals to be 'economically viable' to exploit
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What is smelting
thermo-chemical conversion of mineral to metal
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How do you smelt?
in a furnace (1200oC) using charcoal fuel
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2 ways to make the best metal
refining, alloying
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2 ways to make the artefact from metal
casting, forging (hot and cold)
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What's the most important process for (non)ferrous metals
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How do you form bronze?
mix copper with tin and remelt
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5 Alloy properties:
lowers melting point below base, melts over range of temps, inc hardness, changes metal colour, changes metal tone/ring
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How do you cast a metal
crucible using molten metal and mould
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What is the Three-Age-System
Stone, Bronze, & Iron Age
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9 steps of metallurgy:
1. 1st encounters, 2. native metals, 3. zoomorphic forms in native metals, 4. annealing, 5. melting, 6. shaping, 7. accidental smelting, 8. intentional smelting, 9. alloying
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define: annealing
gentle heating to soften the native metal and counteract embrittlement
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define: accidental smelting
in crucible with accidental inclusion of mineral with native metal (6-5millenium BCE)
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define: alloying
combining metals/minerals to change properties
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Early Bronze Age sites of alloying
Feinan, Timna, Gotlepe (Jordan, Israel, & Anatolia, Ain Bunar, Rudna Glava (Balkans)
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Where was ev for copper smelting after 3rd mill BCE
Balkans, Iberian peninsula, Mediterranean, Indian sub-continent, China, SE Asia
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8th mill BCE metallurgy ev
Cayonnu Tepesi, 50 copper awls, annealing
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7th mill BCE metallurgy ev
Tell Mayzallia, Iraq, annealed copper awls
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6th mill BCE metallurgy ev
Yarim Tepe, annealed copper; Ali Kosh, Catal Huyuk, & Feinan (Jordan) poss ****
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5th mill BCE metallurgy ev
Turkey, Iraq, Iran ambig ev for smelting
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4th mill BCE metallurgy ev
inc good ev for smelting, crucibles, and alloys
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3rd mill BCE metallurgy ev
early bronze age, alloys w tin, smelting in furnaces prod ****, smelting in SE Spain and Balkans
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2nd mill BCE metallurgy ev
copper metallurgy widespread but @ diff stages of dev
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2000-1500 BCE metallurgy ev
1st ev for smelted iron
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What makes a precious metal? (5)
rarity, resistance to corrosion, colour/lustre, plasticity, aesthetic
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How does Gold occur
as native metal, doesn't require smelting
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Earliest evidence of regular gold use
Neolithic cemetery Varna, Bulgaria
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Varna, Bulgaria d8s
4600-4200 BCE
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How many graves at Varna
300 discovered in 1972
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How many gold artefacts at Varna
3000, weighing 6kg
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What is unusual about some graves at Varna
no remains, just gold - artefact burial or gold of king buried there
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Bronze age: Copper deposits
Balkans (Bulgaria, Serbia, Albania), the Alps, the Carpathians, central Europe (Germany, France, N Wales, Ireland, Cornwall, N Wales (Great Orme), Ireland EBA), Iberian peninsula,
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Bronze age: tin ores deposits
Cornwall, Spain, Brittany, Sardinia, E Europe
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Bronze age: smelting, sl*g deposits
Mount Gabriel, Ireland, Mitterburg, Alps, Balkans
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3 Ingot shapes
plano-convex 'buns', axe-shaped, 'ox-hide'
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Ulu Burun, Turkey d8s
LBA 1400 BCE
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What was Ulu Burun?
shipwreck off Turkey found 1982
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What cargo did Ulu Burun have?
10 tonnes incl 354 ox-hide copper/tin ingots, 12 plano-convex bun copper/tin ingots, other artefacts
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Methods for disposal of bodies (7)
inhumations/burial, cremation, cannibalism, excarnation/exposed, preserved, 2ndary manipulation
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Key themes in graves (9)
status, identity, gender, kinship, landscape of death, deviant, royal, violence/war, politics of death
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Why human sacrifice? (9)
appease nature, misfortune, appease gods, ensure harvest/hunt, fertility, victory, protection, health, change course of event
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Iron Age Bog Bodies (3)
Lindow Moss (Cheshire), Tollund Man (Denmark), Clonycavan Man (co. Meath, Ireland)
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Incan period d8s
1476-1534 CE
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Incan territory (5)
2500 miles - Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, NW Argentina
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'Capac hucha' meaning
children, normally high status, selected to be sacrificed considered an honour
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Who did the Incas revere
'apu' mountains inhabited by deities
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What can cannibalism be?
ritual indication respect or disrespect or survival
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Famous cases of survival cannibalism>
Uruguayan rugby team 1972 in Andes; Franklin Arctic expedition 1845
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Cannibalism: Herxheim, Germany d8s
LBK 5500-4500 BCE
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What found at Herxheim, Germany
min 500 ppl, >1000, 1906 bone fragments, 10 individuals
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Interps of Herxheim cannibalism (4)
survival, funerary, enemies, ceremonials
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Puebloan site, SW Colorado d8s
1150 CE
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Puebloan site; 5MT10010 (what found?)
pithouses w human remains
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Puebloan site; Mancos (what found?)
pithouse with disarticulated remains of 30 ppl
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Define: deviant burials
non-normative, atypical burials diff to trad of culture
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Define: revenant
someone who returns from the dead
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How do people become revenants? (4)
predisposition, predestination, events, nonevents
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How many deviant burials at Drawsko, Poland
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Kilteasheen, Co. Roscommon, Ireland d8s
8th C
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What did the 2 males at Kilteasheen have as anti-revenant protection
large rock in mouth perimortem,
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Define: exchange
the movement or transfer of goods between people
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Define: trade
the exchange of commodities, things that can be acquired in exchange for other of equal value, measured in a particular currency
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Define: circulation
encompasses movements of goods/ppl, concepts, info, financial products, images, gossip, fame, and reputation
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Define: interaction
refers to action/influence of things/ppl on each other
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Define: gift exchanges
exchange of inalienable goods between non-strangers that estab qualitative personal r/ships between persons involved
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Define: commodities exchange
exchange of alienable goods between strangers estab quantitative r/ships between objects in transaction usually expecting repayment
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Define: barter transactions
direct transaction of goods/services for other goods/services w/out use of money
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Define: the marketplace
the space where market transactions occur
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Define: the market principle
goods/services sold at a price defined by S/D, ruled by mutual interest
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Things before coinage:
cowrie shells, cacao beans, axe-monies
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Otzi the Ice man
3300 BCE - away from home
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What did Malinowski say about the Kula system
system where giving happens "for the sake of giving"
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What does Mauss think gifts are
systems of "total preservations"
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What does Mauss think gifts are imbued with
"spiritual mechanisms"
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Gift exchange leads to a ____ between giver and receiver
mutual interdependence
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The ______ that is not returned is a ______ because it cannot create social ties
"free" gift, contradiction
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Who writes about alliance theory and marriage?
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women are the ___ between two men
supreme gift
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Define: reciprocity
transactions between individuals who are symmetrically placed, exchange as equals
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Define: redistribution
implies the operation of some centralisation in the reception of goods, char of sox with some level of centralised control/pol hierarchy
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Define: market exchange
specific central location for transactions, sort of social r/ship where bargaining can happen
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What are Big Men sox combos of (econ)
reciprocity and redistribution
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What did Renfrew introduce
chemical analysis of obsidian to identify its origin and dem the existence of long-distance exchange networks
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Who made a list of uses for amber
Pliny the Elder
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Royal Tomb at Qatna d8s
sealed 1340 BCE at destruction of city by Hittites, used 200-300 yrs
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What is obsidian?
volcanic glass w unique knapping properties
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Franchthi cave, Greece
occupied since Upper Palaeolithic
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Melos use?
for obsidian, from 14,000 BCE
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What does Robb (2007) argue about obsidian value
in Neolithic, value stemmed from capacity to conX ppl across lrg areas
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Greenstone axe quarry, Mt William, Australia, why used?
not about quality of stones but exchange opp there
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Who demonstrated the circulation of greenstone axes wasn't utilitarian
Isabel McBryde
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____ has wide-reaching mobile patterns and exchange networks since earliest _____ occupations (__)
the andes, hunter-gatherer (c. 10,000 BP)
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What were Incan empire staples
state farms and storage, expansive agricultural systems
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What is the name of the Incan labour tax
The Mit'a
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What did the Incas trade long distance with
Spondylus shells
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What are spondylus shells examples of
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Properties of Mullu and uses
high symbolic value, used in state rituals
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Technical term for Incan sacrificial exchange
Capacocha (Qhapaq hucha)
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In traditional socities ____&____ does not always mean ____ power
authority & leadership, coercive
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Define: prestige
reputation, honour, wealth, and the ability to mobilise the support of followers through a chain of obligations
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The process of prestige often involves.....
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Define: valuables
marks of social status that define an individual's political and economic rights in a society
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Prestige objects carry _____ of _______
milieu, social meaning
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What do prestige objects do to a person?
physically and metaphorically augment them
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_____ allows ___ to be _____ in time
material object, power, reproduced
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Characteristics of special artefacts (6)
worn/displayed, practical, 2nd use, complex prod, exotic material, magical
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Renfrew's criteria for 'prime value' of gold(5):
personal adornment over key body parts, component in power symbols, artefacts look like gold, used sparingly, reflective etc.
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What part of the body did gold cover in Varna
phallus - phallocarps
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The Lord of Sipan, Peru d8s
Moche culture, 100-700 CE
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Strucyre of the Lord of Sipan tomb
pyramid, Moche at the top the lords on levels
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Define: ascribed status
status from attributes over which we have no control; high status acquired through heredity
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Define: achieved status
status as a result of personal advancement and education; high status achieved within a broadly egalitarian society
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How can we distinguish ascribed and achieved status?
material distributed in pyramid, energy expended in funerary rituals
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What is the name of the approach to social classification acc to 'level of evolution'?
social darwinism
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Define: cultural complexity
the degree to which a society is internally differentiated and the interrelationships among the parts
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Define: vertical cultural complexity
ranking positions, status, classes
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Define: horizontal cultural complexity
division of labour, age/gender groups, political factions, kin groups, corporate groups
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Morris' definition of cultural complexity
a measure of the scale of practices characterising societies
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What are the 'movers' of cultural change? (5)
environmental pressure, demographics, cult infl/diffusion/migration, exchange/trade, tech innovation
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What was the Marxist rebirth of evolutionism, and when?
Neo-evolutionism, 1950s
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What were the theories of the neo-evolutionists? (3)
'contemporary ancestors', cross-cultural comparison, universal laws of change
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What does BTCS stand for, and when was it popular?
Band-Tribe-Chiefdom-State model, 60s
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Define: contemporary ancestors (Yoffee)
contemporary examples of BTCS model showing snapshots of human evolution
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Chars of band sox
kin groups, subsistence, 30-100 ppl, 0 auth
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Chars of tribe/segmentary sox
pan-tribal, larger pop, prestige leaders, subsistence + hunt/gather
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Example of tribal soc
Big men
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What exchange do Big Men engage in?
Moka exchange
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What is Moka exchange?
men challenge each other to gifts, biggest gift giver wins, use conXs to prepare offerings
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Chars of chiefdom sox
inc pop, sedent, agro/herding econ, central agency, inequality
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Renfrew's chiefdom chars
ranked, redist org by chief, pop density, inc #in soc, inc residence group, + productivity, territory&border, centres, ceremonies, priesthood, attire 4 rank, econ specialisation, external war
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What is debated as a chiefdom?
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What did Tim Earle find about chiefdoms
chiefs emerge bc individuals seek to enhance their power and prestige in a competitive system
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Where are Potlatches celebrated
N Pacific coast of N America
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What does a Potlatch celebrate?
births, memorials, marriages, hereditary chief titles, induct new members, affirm ancestral names
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What is the aim of gifts at Potlatches
to produce social capital and generate new links and legitimise the chief's authority
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What was an exotic potlatch item said to have supernatural power
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Hochdorf, Germany d8s
Iron Age, 500 BCE
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What was Hochdorf?
Burial chambers in a mound, lots of cool stuff there
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Cahokia, Mississippi d8 of change
1030 CE
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Cahokia size
city = 3000-10,000, outskirts = 6000-40,000
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Typologies only look at _____ and give us ____ but say nothing about _______ of that society
lowest common denominator, guidance, individual historical trajectories
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Types of collapse
Political, regime (change),economic, cultural (decline/change)
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__ not always the same as __, it is an ___ process
change, collapse, ongoing
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What is the favourite example of cultural change
Classical Mayan society
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Short period of rapid regime change
French Revolution - 25 years
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When did France become a Constitutional Monarchy
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When did France become a Republic?
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What event happened in France in 1792
Execution of K/Q - Reign of Terror
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When did France become a Directory
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What event happened in France in 1795
Coup d'etat
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When did France become a Consulate
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When did France become an Empire
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When did France restore the Bourbons
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The Assyrian Empire d8s
max at 660 BCE, recession at 605 BCE
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Who conquered the Assyrian empire?
Babylon and Persia
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Alexander III of Macedon d8s
336-323 BCE
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When was Battle of River Granikos
334 BCE
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When was Battle of Issos
333 BCE
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When was Battle of Gaugamela (defeat of Darius III)
331 BCE
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When was the end of the LBA
1200-1150 BCE
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Places experienced destruction levels (5)
Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, The Levant
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Sites in Greece exp destruction levels:
Mycenae, Tiryns
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Sites in Turkey exp destruction levels:
Miletos, Troy Vlh Vlla, Mersin Tarsus, Fraktin, Lidar Hoyuk, Tille Hoyuk, Norsuntepe
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Sites in Cyprus exp destruction levels:
Enkomi, Kition, Sinda
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Sites in Syria exp destruction levels:
Ugarit, Aleppo, Carchemish (survives?), Emar
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Sites in the Levant exp destruction levels:
Deir Allah, Lachish, Megiddo, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Akko, Hazor
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How many causes suggested that ended the LBA?
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Name the suggested causes of the end of the LBA
1. Cultural decadence, 2. Barbarian invasion, 3. Iron, 4. Internal fragmentation, 5. 'Domino theory', 6. Economics, 7. Over-centralisation, 8. Famine, 9. Volcanic eruption, 10. Earthquakes, 11. Pastoralism and Nomadism
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What were the barbarians called who ended LBA
'sea peoples'
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From sources, who is said to be the foreign soldiers (barbarians) involved
C19 texts: Ramesses III, Sherden, Shekelesh, Peleset, Tjekker, Denyen, Weshesh; end C19 texts: Merneptah, Shardana, Shekelesh, Lukka, Tursha, Ekwesh
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Who are identified as the 'sea peoples' (3)
Phrygians, Dorians, Libyans
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When did Hekla, Iceland, erupt?
1159 BCE
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When did problems in the Hittite empire begin?
during the reign of Ramesses II following battle of Qadesh
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When were the 'Dark Ages'
1200-1000 BCE
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Where did the Dark Ages affect the arc of? (6)
Greece, Crete, Anatolia, Syrian Coast, Canaan/Palestine, Nubia(?)
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Where didn't the Dark Ages affect the arc of? (3)
Egypt, Assyria, Babylonia
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Greece: DA d8s
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Who were the N groups of Neo-Hittites/Arameans (8)
Tabal, Kammanu, Hilakku, Quwe, Gurgum, Kummuh, Carchemish, Sam'al
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Who were the S groups of Neo-Hittites/Arameans (8 (9))
Bit Gabbari, Bit-Adini, Bit-Bahiani, Unqi/Pattina, Ain Dara, Bit Agusi, Hatarikka-Luhuti, Hamath, (Damascus)
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What is the problem with the Nubian 'DA'
ignores imperial collapse, Egyptocentric, racist
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Paradigm of Post-New Kingdom Nubia: Lower Nubia
decline, abandoned end 20th Dynasty, no arc
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Paradigm of Post-New Kingdom Nubia: Upper Nubia
ceases ot be Egyptian, 0 till Kurru cemetery c. 850
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According to archaeological evidence no evidence after _____ of ____ exists (_____)
20th dynasty, Egypt, (1079-300 BCE)
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Define: archaeological dustbin
places where people put material/site/bits of sites/graves/assemblages they don't u/s in a hole
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Who had racialised views of the Nubian cultural changes
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What was Reisner's theory of Nubian cultural change?
experienced cult high when invaders from N, experienced cult decline when invaders from S
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Why was Reisner wrong?
When he excavated a grave w 0 in it, he assigned it to S invaders, ignored evidence in favour of his own views
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What did Reisner call el-Kurru
miserable little heaps of ruins
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What did Reisner call el-Kurru
miserable little heaps of ruins
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