The Migration Period

  • Created by: Lauriie
  • Created on: 14-04-18 02:45
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  • The Migration Period
    • Vandals
      • 406 AD- a group cross the rhine. 409 AD: crossed the pyrenees. 455AD : Vandal kingdom based in Carthage 455AD: sack of Rome 533AD-534: war with byzantines, leading to surrender
        • Areas with attested vandal presence:Carthage
          • Koudiat Zateur grave w two distinctive brooches (typologically relate to danubian area) also finger rings, necklace Solid gold buckle with garnet parts (solid distribution in eastern black sea)Gold earrings
            • No evidence other than grave assemblages distinctively associated with vandals in North africa, though there was a kingdom there for 100 years
          • Conquest of North African province by vandals, based on our evidence, did not disrupt pottery production
            • reduction in trans mediterranean trade from 4th to 5th century, but distribution stays the same- all the routes are still active but intensity has decreased?
          • Vandal kingdom minted their own coinage- a lot found in Italy and some in western med to the coast of spain and france, and eastern med towards palestine
            • we don’t see a major disruption of mediterranean trade- the routes are in operation, they mint coins, domestic economy still working well
        • Stilicho- vandal and high ranking roman official
          • more complicated relationship between romans and barbarians
        • Overall, we see : elongated brooches, belt buckles, earrings, earrings (occur in Southern Germany and Pannonia)
          • Internationalisation of the distributions of artefacts. Wide, continuing networks of people
            • Emergence of a trans-mediterranean / trans black sea elite? Shared experience of social changes?
              • Mosaic with nobleman on a horse from Bord Djedid
                • Identified as a vandal due to facial hair but clearly a high status individual, about to head off hunting- cross med elite?
    • Visigoths
      • Split from ostrogoths- hit france and finally establish themselves in Iberia.  507AD-711: Kingdom of Toledo 711AD- defeat by the Umayyads
        • Compared to all the other groups, the written evidence is really extensive and it covers the entire period of visigothic history. Ammianus Marcellinus: battle of adrianopolis 619/624: isidore of Seville ‘the history of the Kings of the Goths’
          • Material evidence: brooches, belt buckles, half moon earrings
            • Kingdom of Toulouse: St Martin de Fontenay: 2 graves identified as foreigners ‘Plate’ brooches positioned on the shoulder in one grave,  shoulder position indicates a ‘peplos’ dress common along the roman frontiers,
            • Spain, centered around madrid:
              • Cemetery of Duraton- excavated by Antonio Milinere Perez. Excavated 600 plus graves but only half of it published. pin brooches similar to the ones found in Toulouse  Construction of graves from stone- late roman tradition
                • ‘Gothic’ label- elaborate brooch buckles, trapezoid brooches and eagle brooches
              • Treasure of Guarazzar in Toledo- votive crowns given to a church as an offering, not meant to be worn on the head
                • Center crown: Crown of Recceswinth- associated with him because his name is actually on there, hanging from the pendants. Entwining of Kingship and christianity
                  • - sapphires from Sri lanka, pearls from red sea or indian ocean, emeralds from the Austrian alps. Extremely widespread connections and trade links!
              • Recent interpretations- more of an imagined gothicness with some arriving people, but ohers joining in- not an exclusionary identity but open to up and coming elites of Iberia
    • Ostrogoths
      • thought to have migrated to Italy from Pannonia, though the nature and extent of this migration is difficult to assess, since archaeologically they are not sharply defined as distinct ethnic group
        • Led by Theoderic: attacked odovacar in 488 AD. Captured ravenna in 492
          • Archaeological evidence
            • Eastern Europe: Cintana de Mures culture, north of the Black Sea
              • burials with vessels, distinctive brooches and belt buckles. some hoards, mostly funerary finds
            • Italy
              • Site of Goita in Northern Italy
                • Ambroz brooches, mostly found north of the Black sea
              • Site of Frascaro
                • Individual with artificial cranial modification. Tree trunk coffins. Sunken feature buildings and wooden houses
              • General changes in material culture
                • 5th and 6th century: distinctive links between Italy and further east: particular brooch commonality, and belt buckles, between italy and hungary
                  • These belt buckles arise stylistically from late roman military traditions- ostentatious belt buckles were awarded/ worn by high ranking menGender flipping- these buckles later become associated with female burials.
              • Domagnano treasure- antiquarian find- late 5th/early 6th century
                • Gold finger ring, big eagle brooches (symbol of elite gothicness) other jewellery.
                  • it very strongly resembles byzantine court fashions from around the time of Theodoric.
              • Ravenna
                • Mausoleum of Theoderic built in 520
                  • Roman or Germanic?- tied to the idea that the mausoleum architecturally relates to ‘nordic grain stores’, trying to claim germanic architecture style, in context of ‘germanomania’.
                  • octagonal mausoleums are very common in the late roman tradition, and central eurpoean people were not building in stone.
                • Sant'Apollinare Nuovo- built by theodoric, though only some of the mosaics can be reliably dated to this time
                  • Initially- image of christ in one apse, image of Theodoric on other side- worldly/ heavenly leadership balancing out?
                    • Depictions  of theodoric’s palace in mosaics were defaced following byzantine reconquest- hands left in to deliberately show defacement?
                • Remains of Imperial Palace
    • Lombards
      • mythical origins in scandinavia, moved to pannonia, and from 568 established themselves in Italy as the Lombard kingdom. Described by Paul the Deacon and un-named authors.
        • northern italy and duchy of Benevento
        • Pannonia
          • cemeteries with similar material culture to the Lombards of Italy
        • Sites
          • Castel Trosino: cemetery on plateau, brooches, necklaces, coins, weapon finds, and elaborate belt buckles. Links with pannonia.
          • Study of Szolad and Collegno: Lombard period sites (Turino/ Pannonia) Consciously aims to disentangle evidence for migration and ethnicity
            • Szolad: cemetery assocated with Lombards. Men, women and children represented, some graves encircles with ring ditches, weapons as well as brooches and beads
              • Isotopic work: high levels of mobility that we can see- strontium isotope data from tooth enamelLeast children, most women fall outside local range. Women seem to have been more mobile then men, which may relate to family marriage practices
            • Collegno: Collegno: typical finds (weapons/ brooches), a horse burial, sunken feature buildingsSome of the women fall well out of the local range.

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