1-Global Warming

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  • Created by: 7761cookl
  • Created on: 25-07-14 15:58
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  • Global Warming - key factors
    • Consequences
      • Droughts, famine, change of ecosystems and rises in sea levels
    • Anthropogenic
      • Main producer
        • Carbon dioxide
          • Absorbs infrared
            • Infrared radiation
              • Greenhouse gases
                • Carbon dioxide
                  • Absorbs infrared
                    • Infrared radiation
                      • Greenhouse gases
                        • Water Vapour
                          • 0.3% within the atmosphere, increasing molecular rotation will allow for absorption of infrared radiation
                            • Precipitation
                              • Water reservoirs
                                • Residency time; time  molecules held in a particular reservoir
                                • Transportation; water and nutrients
                  • Water Vapour
                    • 0.3% within the atmosphere, increasing molecular rotation will allow for absorption of infrared radiation
                      • Precipitation
                        • Water reservoirs
                          • Residency time; time  molecules held in a particular reservoir
                          • Transportation; water and nutrients
          • Fossil fuel burning
          • Evidence of climate change
            • Fossils
              • types of fossil that usually belong to one ecosystem but found in another
            • Core samples
              • Pollen types and depth
          • Solar radiation
            • 3.85 x 10power26 Watts
              • Solar illuminosity
                • Solar radiation
                  • 3.85 x 10power26 Watts
                    • Solar illuminosity
                    • Solar constant - measurement of solar mean average
                      • Dependent on - types of solar surface and the distance from the sun
                      • Surface radiation
                        • Stevenson screen
                          • Ventilated closed box, 1 metre above ground
                          • Levels of uncertainty
                            • Experimental
                              • Small amount of uncertainty produces a higher precision
                            • Systematic
                              • Manufacturers measures not inline with standard measurements
                            • Random
                              • Scattered results around the mean value
                            • +- 0.5 standard uncertainty
                        • Mean surface temperature = total of measurements / total number of measurements taken
                          • Annual MST = sum all temperatures in a year / number of readings
                          • Global MST = sum of all MST internationally / number of international locations
                            • Dependent on surface energy gain / energy loss
                              • the balance is known as steady state
                              • Energy loss from the surface increases the GMST
                        • Surface tempurature
                          • Dependent on surface energy gain / energy loss
                            • the balance is known as steady state
                            • Energy loss from the surface increases the GMST
                        • Reflection
                          • 9%
                          • Atmosphere
                          • Ice and snow
                        • Absorption
                          • 49%
                          • 20%
                            • Atmosphere
                        • Scattering
                          • 22%
                            • Albedo
                              • 9%
                              • Space
                          • Redirect solar radiation
                          • Aerosols, clouds
                            • Indirectly earths surface
                          • Ultimately converted to heat
                            • Convection
                              • Transfer of higher heat to a place with lower heat
                              • Thermal expansion
                                • Increases volume
                                • A cause for sea level rise
                              • Evaperation
                                • Production of water vapour
                                  • Sublimination; the change of physical states, gases, liquids and solids
                                    • Changing states requires energy - Latent heat
                            • Greatest loss of energy
                          • Total solar radiation = solar constant x area of disc
                          • Surface radiation
                            • Stevenson screen
                              • Ventilated closed box, 1 metre above ground
                              • Levels of uncertainty
                                • Experimental
                                  • Small amount of uncertainty produces a higher precision
                                • Systematic
                                  • Manufacturers measures not inline with standard measurements
                                • Random
                                  • Scattered results around the mean value
                                • +- 0.5 standard uncertainty
                            • Mean surface temperature = total of measurements / total number of measurements taken
                              • Annual MST = sum all temperatures in a year / number of readings
                              • Global MST = sum of all MST internationally / number of international locations
                              • Surface tempurature
                                • Reflection
                                  • Ice and snow
                                • Absorption
                                  • 49%
                                  • 20%
                                  • Scattering
                                    • 22%
                                      • Albedo
                                        • Space
                                    • Redirect solar radiation
                                    • Aerosols, clouds
                                      • Indirectly earths surface
                                    • Ultimately converted to heat
                                      • Convection
                                        • Transfer of higher heat to a place with lower heat
                                        • Thermal expansion
                                          • Increases volume
                                          • A cause for sea level rise
                                        • Evaperation
                                          • Production of water vapour
                                            • Sublimination; the change of physical states, gases, liquids and solids
                                              • Changing states requires energy - Latent heat
                                      • Greatest loss of energy
                                • Solar constant - measurement of solar mean average
                                  • Dependent on - types of solar surface and the distance from the sun
                                • Total solar radiation = solar constant x area of disc
                            • Feedback
                              • Positive, encourages a chain reaction
                              • Negative, tries to keep the balance
                              • Global Warming - key factors
                                • Consequences
                                  • Droughts, famine, change of ecosystems and rises in sea levels
                                • Anthropogenic
                                  • Main producer
                                    • Fossil fuel burning
                                    • Evidence of climate change
                                      • Fossils
                                        • types of fossil that usually belong to one ecosystem but found in another
                                      • Core samples
                                        • Pollen types and depth
                                • Saturation
                                  • Increasing temperatures = more water held
                                  • Rate of evaporation depends on saturation levels
                                  • Increasing temperatures = more water held
                                  • Carbon reservoirs
                                    • Transportation
                                      • Coal formation
                                        • Plant material preserved in water saturated soil away from oxygen
                                          • Buried
                                    • Photosynthesis
                                      • Solar energy
                                        • Stores energy for plant consumption
                                        • Oxygen
                                          • Respiration
                                            • Animals
                                        • Plants
                                          • Biomass, all living things
                                            • Animals
                                      • Organic Carbon, CO2 mass levels 50%
                                        • Biomass, all living things
                                        • Plants
                                          • Wind, 36
                                            • Atmosphere, 4
                                              • Precipitation, 107
                                            • Rivers and underground, 36
                                              • Land, 58000
                                                • Evaporation, 71
                                                  • Atmosphere, 4
                                                    • Precipitation, 107
                                              • Land, 58000
                                                • Evaporation, 71
                                                • Ocean, 1400000
                                                  • Rivers and underground, 36
                                                    • Precipitation, 398
                                                      • Atmosphere, 11
                                                        • Wind, 36
                                                          • Evaporation, 434
                                                        • Surface ocean
                                                          • 100-200m
                                                            • Wave action
                                                            • Solar radiation
                                                              • Mixing
                                                                • Wave action
                                                                • Exchange, heat, oxygen, carbon dioxide
                                                          • Phytoplankton
                                                            • Particulate carbon
                                                              • More CO2 drawn in from atmosphere
                                                                • Atmosphere, 11
                                                                  • Evaporation, 434
                                                                  • Ocean, 1400000
                                                                    • Precipitation, 398
                                                                      • Surface ocean
                                                                        • 100-200m
                                                                          • Solar radiation
                                                                            • Mixing
                                                                              • Exchange, heat, oxygen, carbon dioxide
                                                                        • Phytoplankton
                                                                          • Particulate carbon
                                                                            • More CO2 drawn in from atmosphere
                                                                          • Sinking
                                                                            • Biological pump
                                                                              • Uplifting
                                                                                • Deep ocean
                                                                                  • 1Km
                                                                            • Defecated carbon
                                                                              • Sediment
                                                                                • Dissolved Carbon
                                                                                • Overlaying deposits
                                                                                  • Lithication
                                                                                    • Sedimentary rock
                                                                          • Deep ocean
                                                                            • 1Km
                                                                            • Degassing
                                                                              • Lower temperature, holds more dissolved carbon
                                                                      • Sinking
                                                                        • Biological pump
                                                                          • Uplifting
                                                                        • Defecated carbon
                                                                          • Sediment
                                                                            • Dissolved Carbon
                                                                            • Overlaying deposits
                                                                              • Lithication
                                                                                • Sedimentary rock
                                                                      • Degassing
                                                                        • Lower temperature, holds more dissolved carbon
                                                                      • X 10power15 Kg ypower-1
                                                                      • Respiration
                                                                        • Lithification
                                                                          • Buried

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