Genetic Code & Cell Function

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  • Genetic Code & Cell Function
    • DNA Structure
      • Nucleotide
        • Phosphate
        • Pentose Sugar
        • Nitrogenous base
          • Pyrimidine
            • Thymine
            • Cytosine
          • Purine
            • Adenine
            • Guanine
      • Many nucleotides join together to form 2 polynucleotide strands
        • They join up between the phosphate of one nucleotide and the sugar of another
          • Sugar-phosphate backbone
          • Two poly-nucleotide strands are coiled and form a spiral
            • Double Helix
      • Complimentary Base Pairing
        • Adenine pairs with Thymine
        • Guanine pairs with Cytosine
    • Main Functions of DNA
      • Replication in dividing cells
      • Carrying information for protein synthesis
    • DNA Replication
      • 1. DNA helix UNWINDS. Hydrogen bonds holding base pairs together break causing the two halves of the molecule to UNZIP
        • DNA Helicase unzips the DNA
      • 2. As the strands separate DNA polymerase catalyses the addition of free nucleotides to the exposed bases
      • 3. Each strand acts as a TEMPLATE so that free nucleotides can be joined to their complimentary bases
        • By DNA polymerase
      • 4. 2 DNA molecules form
        • Each molecule consists of one NEWLY SYNTH-ESISED  strand and one ORIGINAL TEMPLATE strand
      • This is semi-conservative replication

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