Genetic Code & Cell Function

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  • Genetic Code & Cell Function
    • Genetic Code
      • Chromosomes are divided into thousands of smaller sections = GENES
      • The information carried on the DNA
        • Code for the amino acids of proteins
      • Characteristics
        • Three bases = TRIPLE CODE
        • Degenerate - most amino acids have more than one triplet code
        • Some triplet codes do no code for amino acids
          • These are known as 'stop' codons
        • Code is universal
          • It is used by ALL organisms
        • Code is non-overlapping
          • Each triplet code is read separately
    • Roles of RNA
      • Messenger RNA (mRNA)
        • DNA remains in the nucleus and acts as a template for producing mRNA
        • mRNA carries the instructions needed for protein synthesis
          • From the nucleus to the cell cytoplasm through the nuclear pores
        • Short and single stranded
      • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
        • Ribosomes in the cytoplasm are made of protein and RNA.
        • They are the site of attachment for mRNA
          • This is where the polypeptide is made
      • Transfer RNA (tRNA)
        • Carries the specific amino acid to the ribosome
        • It attaches the anticodon to the complimentary codon of the mRNA
      • In RNA molecules, the pyrimidine base Thymine is replaced with URACIL


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