- General Policing
- Wide variety of tasks: Crime prevention and detection.
- Reiner: "a set of activities directed at preserving the security of a particular social order"
- Bittner: "something that ought not to be happening and about which someone had better do something now!
- Vague tasks: What situations require police intervention? How should police respond to those that do?
- Conflicting responsibilities. Public expectations vs Force directives. Community policing vs Crackdowns.