General Studies Unit 1 Crime and Punishment revision

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • General Studies
    • Crime
      • Crime is defined as a serious offence against an individual or the state, punishable by law.
      • The government distinguishes between summary and indictable offences. 
        • Indictable offences are more serious and carry heavier penalties so they are tried in crown courts before a jury.
        • Summary offences, such as motoring offences or minor theft, are dealt with in a magistrate’s court. A magistrate's court has no jury.
      • libertarianism
        • Bigamy Blasphemy Electoral fraud White-collar crime (e.g. Fraud) Infringements of copyright
          • Some would argue that these types of crimes are ‘victimless’ and, therefore should not be prosecuted (known as libertarianism).  Others would argue that there is suffering as a result of these crimes and it harms society’s values.
      • Classification of crimes
        • Crimes against property
          • Property crimes include many common crimes relating to theft or destruction of someone else's property. They can range from burglary, to theft, to motor vehicle theft, arson, shoplifting, and vandalism.
        • Crimes against the person
          • The term “crimes against the person” refers to a broad array of criminal offenses which usually involve bodily harm, the threat of bodily harm, or other actions committed against the will of an individual. Those involving bodily harm (or the threat thereof) include assault, battery, and domestic violence.
        • Crimes against the state
          • Broadly speaking, all crime is against the state, or government, insofar as it disturbs the public order and tranquility.
      • Socio-economic Cost of Crime
        • Violent crime costs the UK economy more than £124 billion a year, equivalent to £4,700 for every household, a study out today has revealed.
        • The figure, which equates to 7.7 per cent of the UK’s GDP, includes the cost of police investigations, courts and prison expenditure as well as a vast amount in lost productivity.
        • It suggests that just a nine per cent reduction in violence would save the economy enough money to pay for the entire London Olympics.
        • The report, which looks at the socio-economic impact of violence, was produced by the Institute for Economics and Peace and represents the first time an overall figure has been put on the cost of violent crime.
    • Punishment
      • Types of punishment
        • Parole
        • Rehabilitation
      • Death Penalty
        • The death penalty was abolished in England in 1965, with the last execution taking place in 1964.
      • Laws are created in society for the protection of the values of society and the defence of the rights of the  individual. Sanctions, or punishments, exist to underpin the operation of the law for the good of all.
        • Law
          • Types of Law
            • Civil law
              • Civil law is a private law.  It settles matters between two individuals and organisations., normally to determine responsibility and damages.  The end result is mostly damages in civil law.
            • Criminal law
              • Criminal law considers crimes committed against the crown. Government identifies and criminalises behaviour that is considered wrong, damaging to individuals through criminal law. (i.e. murder and theft)
    • Law
      • Types of Law
        • Civil law
          • Civil law is a private law.  It settles matters between two individuals and organisations., normally to determine responsibility and damages.  The end result is mostly damages in civil law.
        • Criminal law
          • Criminal law considers crimes committed against the crown. Government identifies and criminalises behaviour that is considered wrong, damaging to individuals through criminal law. (i.e. murder and theft)
    • What causes crime?
      • More researchers believe that violent tendencies have a biological basis and that tests and brain imaging can pick them up in children.
        • The theories were put forward by two leading criminologists at the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Washington. Prof Adrian Raine, a British criminologist, argued that abnormal physical brain make-up could be a cause of criminality.
          • His studies have shown that psychopaths and criminals have smaller areas of the brain such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, both of which regulate and control emotion and behaviour. (The Telegraph, 2011)
          • Other Key factors of crime
            • Drugs and alcohol
            • Peer preasure
            • Societal factors such as deprivation, low employment prospects, poor education
            • Mental illness
  • How much crime is there?
    • Crime figures are reported by the police but this relies on crimes reported and how the police record them.
    • Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) carries out regular surveys for the Ministry of Justice.  The CSEW suggests that only half of all crimes are reported.  They refer to a ‘dark figure’ of crime that is not reported to the police so does not get reported.
    • Crime figures dropped in 2014

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar General Studies resources:

See all General Studies resources »See all Crime and Punishment resources »