Free will, libertarianism & determinism

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  • Free will, determinism and Libertarianism
    • Determinism - For everything that happens, there are conditions such that, given those conditions, nothing else could happen
      • Hard Determinism
        • Argues that every event has a cause or many causes, so the idea of free will is impossible
      • Soft determinism
        • Argues that although we may be determined by some things (genes/ environment)we can still function as free, moral agents
        • Conflict of free wills?
      • Internal causes
        • Genes/ Biology - 2002, bad behaviour gene found
      • External causes
        • Environment/ influence of others eg parents. SLT
      • RELIGIOUS VIEWS
        • Protestant - John Calvin - Predestination - either eternal hell or eternal damnation
        • Islam -  nothing can happen without it being in accordance with God's will. What occurs is because it is God's will that it should be.
      • SKINNER: "The environment is full of factors which exercise control over human beings"
        • EINSTEIN : "Everything is determined"
          • VOLTAIRE: "Everything is planned, limited, connected"
      • BARON D'HOLBACH: We are physical and we live in a physical world - therefore, we  are determined by the laws of physics, so cannot be free.
        • TED HONDERICH: "All our actions, intentions and decisions are results of other equally necessitated events"
      • CLARENCE DARROW CASE, 1924 - LEOPOLD & LOEB - "Broken machines with the murder gene inherent in their organism" "Nature takes its job in hand" "man did not make himself"
    • Libertarianism
      • Argues that we cannot really establish any truth to determinism, because our own experiences dictate that we make free choices
      • The Conscience
        • Religious
          • "the inner voice of God"
        • Aquinas
          • "The  voice of our true selves"
      • BUTLER -  ANGLICAN PRIEST AND THEOLOGIAN - believed that humans are influenced by two basic principles: Self love and Benevolence (Golden rule - love your neighbour)
      • John Stuart Mill - Book: On Liberty - influential figure in libertarianism- The individual should not be crushed by the will of society or by the state. shouldn't crush the diversity of individual people
        • We are libertarians but..."The liberty of the individual must be thus far limited; he must not make himself a nuisance to others"
      • RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVES
        • Christianity
          • PROVERBS 22:6 - "Train a child up into the way he should go and when he is old, he will not turn from it"
            • NIETSZCHE - "Nothing..canbe more incomplete than [one's] image of the totality of drives which constitute [a man's] being"
              • SATRE: "Man is condemned to free will, because once he steps into the universe, he is fully responsible"
          • Judeo-Christian view - me are free autonomous agents, responsible for our actions
      • AQUINAS: "Man chooses not out of necessity, but freely"
    • Free Will
      • NIETSZCHE - "Nothing..canbe more incomplete than [one's] image of the totality of drives which constitute [a man's] being"
        • SATRE: "Man is condemned to free will, because once he steps into the universe, he is fully responsible"
      • The ability to make choices that are not determined by prior causes or divine intervention
      • PLATO: "Praise and blame are confined to voluntary actions"
  • Free Will
    • The ability to make choices that are not determined by prior causes or divine intervention
    • PLATO: "Praise and blame are confined to voluntary actions"

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