Henry VII - Foreign Policy

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  • Foreign Policy
    • Policy aims
      • For nobility and landed class:
        • to win honour and glory in war, especially against France
        • fight French and conquor their territory
      • For Henry VII
        • security: plots, frontiers and channel ports (Britain, Ireland, France , Netherlands, Spain)
        • Finance (customs revenues)
        • Prestige in Europe , some offensive aims
        • dynastic policy (later marriages)
    • Who participated
      • foreign policy discussed at Great councils, crown wearings/ wearing of purple (Epiphany, Easter, Whitsuntide, All Saints, Christmas) discussed at meetings that are an extension of King's Council. 224 members during Henrys Reign
      • John Morton,Richard Fox (led retinue despite being a bishop), nobles all prominent
      • City of London, not much involved in policy apart from the Mayor
      • Parliament not much involved in policy
    • 1492 Boulogne Campaign
      • about: security, money, prestige
      • Some key figures stayed at home: Morton, Lord Dynham (treasurer)
      • Reynold Bray ( treasurer of war, president of council) important in this campaign
      • When they got there, policy debated in a Council of War made up of the King, Nobles, captains, councillors.
        • Debated the Srticels of War, but unusial campaign becasue Henry already new before he went that he wanted to settle
    • Scotland - Security
      • James IV helps Warbeck in 1495 and 1496
      • 1497 James IV accepts truce of Ayton. Having missed opportunity to profit from the Cornish rising, expels Warbeck and agrees to series of truces
      • 1502 treaty of Perpetual Peace and marriage of james to Margaret
    • Ireland - security
      • May 1487, Simnel crowned in Ireland as Edward VI, and invaded England. Policy in Ireland a mixture of carrot and stick: general pardon, followed by bonds and new oath of allegiance.
      • 1491-2 Warbeck in Ireland, Increase in royal and military intervention. Warbeck back 1495, Sir Edward Poynings sent (1494-5) to crush the Yorkists
      • Overall policy to keep the Pale loyal by delegating government to trusted nobles
      • English legislation on retaining adapted for Ireland and the Irsih Parliament to meet only with the King's consent
    • Spain - Dynastic, security
      • 1488, negotiations began for the betrothal of Arthur
      • 1489, Medinal del Campo: Spain closed to Yorkist pretenders and alliance with england
      • 1501, the marriage to Arthur and Catherine takes place. Arthur died in 1502. Henry negotiates for Henry. Henry expected to marry Catherine after his fourteenth birthday, but the wedding postponed bu Henry VII, who has alternative plans for alliances with the Netherlands and France.
        • In 1503 Elizabteh of York died in childbirth, Henry was unable to remarry. He began to negoriate with France, Spain and Netherlands.
    • Netherlands (and HR Empire) - Security, finance, dynasty
      • Henry wants deal with Maximilian and his son Archduke Philip: trade to increase customs revenues plus Warbeck. NB Margaret of Burgundy (Edward IVs sister - Widow of Charles the bold) Supports Perkin Wabeck. Her dower lands in Netherlands, which gives her freedom of action
      • 1496: Magnus Intercuraua, trade treaty that also closed the Netherlands to Henry's Dynastic rivals, a major treaty
      • November 1504, Isabella of Castille Died : Archbishop Philip became the rival of Ferdinand of Aragon for the regency of Castille. Henry VII had to choose. Policy veered towards Philip.
      • january 1506: Philip and his wife, Joanna, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, blown ashore onto the English coast near Weymouth en route for Castille. Henry VII entertained them for three months. By the treaty of Windsor, he recognized Philip as King of Castille and the two promised mutual defense and assistance against each other's rebels. By a second treaty, Philip pledged to marry his sister, Margaret, now regent of the Netherlands, to Henry VII
      • April 1506: Malus Intercursus treaty between Henry and Philip (so called because the Netherlands believed it to be too generous to England) When Philip died (sept 1506) Henry cheated of his investments (£342k)


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