Finishes and Decoration

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  • Created by: claudiade
  • Created on: 09-05-16 10:29
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  • Finishes and Decoration
    • Mechanical Finishes
      • Also known as physical finishes.
      • Brushing:  Wire rollers scratch and hook the surface f the weave or knit to lift out fibres.
        • Raises the fabric surface
        • Adds warmth but more flammable
        • Softer and fluffy texture
        • Repels water
        • May pill, drapes well, but may pill
      • Calendering: fabric pressed through heated metal rollers at a high pressure.
        • flattens, smoothes and improves lustre
        • adds shine and glaze
        • compresses surface texture
        • moire and embosses fabrics are made with engraved rollers to create patter or texture
      • Heat Setting: only with thermoplastic fabires
        • Fibers are softened by heat can then can be set into permanent pleats and shapes
        • permanently fixed unless fabric is laundered at too high of a temperature
    • Chemical Finishes
      • when chemicals are applied to fabrics/yarns to improve their performance or care.
        • environmental: disposal of excess chemicals and bleaches
      • environmental: disposal of excess chemicals and bleaches
      • flame retardant:  makes fabrics resistant to burning
        • proban: the brand name of the chemical used in flame retardancy
        • only used on 100% cotton and cellulosic fabrics
        • lasts the life of the fabric if cared for correctly.
        • uses: protective clothing, upholstery, soft furnishings mattress covers and protective wear for race care drivers.
      • Water resistance:  because the structure of woven and knitted fabrics allow water to pass through.
        • Teflon: water resistant finish and also protects from water borne stains
        • high quality finish which lasts the life of the garment. silicone chemicals are sprayed onto the fabric.
        • prevents the water from soaking into the fabric and the water will remain as droplets on the surface of the fabric.
      • Non-iron:  applied to cellulosic fibres such as cotton linen and viscose.
        • treated with a resin which is dried and backed in an oven which cures the resin.
        • a durable finish but care is required when laundering
      • Stain resistance teflon - repels water- borne stains and lasts the life of the garment
        • prevents  soils stains and spills on wool cotton and blends.
        • liquids bead up and roll off making it easy to clean up and brush off.
      • shrink resistance: scales can be removed from wool to make it shrink- proof. prevents the garment from shrinking after it has been made.
    • Decoration
      • Appliqué: interfacing is used behind an area to be appliquéd, this strengthens it prevents the edges from fraying, helps prevent stretch in the fabric.
        • bondaweb is different . this holds the fabric in place whilst it is being stitched.
      • Adding colour to the fabric: environmental: disposal of excess dye
        • Resist: using something to resist the dye to create a pattern the dye cant get to the areas of resist.
          • Batik (wax) tie-dye (string) discharge (discharge paste which eats away the dye)
      • Colour Fastness. colour fast fabric doesn't lose colour through washing, fading in sunlight and rubbing.
        • dark denim is often over dyed which sits on the surface of the therefore can fade lot quicker
        • hot washes fade colours and depends on hor strong the dye is bonded with fabric.
        • products which should be light fast: carpets seating curtains and rugs.
      • Dying fabrics
        • fibre/dope dying: to the loose fibres before spinning into a yarn.
        • yarn dying: to the yarns before weaving or knitting.
        • fabric dying: to the rolls of fabric
        • garment dying:  dyes as a whole garment as required and colour trends change
      • adding pattern to fabric: printing, stencilling, embroidery, woven and discharge printing.
        • woven: using different coloured yarns warp threads arranged in the loom as required, weft thread change colour as required.
        • tie-dye: resist method, sections of the fabric are tied or knotted tightly, immersed into a dye bath, however its time consuming and gets irregular results.
        • screen printing:  can be used on both big and small scales. the screen has sections blocked off to from the patter, dye paste is pushed through the un-blocked , hand: screen needs to be aligned with precision.
        • rotary printing: engraved metal rollers, each roller builds up a different coloured layer of the deisgn. it is very fast but costly for small runs
      • adding colour to knit: knitted in using different coloured yarns, printed on , discharge pasta or embroidered, problems with distortion when knits stretch .
      • using patterned fabricsL could cut in a cross grain, could change aptern direction. may want to have less seams to maximise pattern. cut some sections in a plain fabric and in a contrasting colour to tone down the business of the patter.
      • pattern repeat: example could be 20cm square , cutting our neers to be carefully planned, more wastage matching patterns at seams care needed, centralising pattern.


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