Commercial Names: Tactel
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Commercial Names:Lycra
Spandex/ Elastane
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Commercial Names: Tencel
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Commercial Names: Tricell
Triacetate Rayon
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Commercial Names:Trevira
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Commercial Names: Polar Fleece
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Definition of a Fibre
A fine and flexible textile raw material.
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Definition of a Yarn
A fine continuous length of fibres or filaments, with or without twists.
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Why are twists put into yarns?
To make the yarns stronger.
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Types of Twists
'Z twist' clockwise or 'S twist' anti-clockwise.
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How are folded yarns made?
By twisting together 2 or more single yarns.
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Why are yarns folded?
To make them stronger and to achieve special effects.
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How is blending achieved?
By spinning 2 or more fibres together to make a yarn.
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Popular blends include:
Polyester/ Cotton
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How is blending achieved?
By spinning 2 or more fibres together to make a yarn.
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Popular blends include:
Polyester/ Cotton. Polyester/ Wool. Wool/ Nylon. Cotton/ Viscose.
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Definition of Woven Fabrics
A textile formed by weaving. Produced on a loom.
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In which way does the Warp run?
Vertical, Up and Down.
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In which was does the Weft run?
Horizontal, Left to Right.
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Construction of a Plain Weave
The warp and weft are aligned so they form a simple criss-cross pattern.
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Construction of a Twill Weave
The crossing of the warp and weft are offset to give a diagonal pattern on the fabric surface.
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Types of Pile Weaves
Warp Pile Weave, Weft Pile Weave and Uncut Loop Pile Weave.
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Weft-Knitted Fabric
Made from a single yarn which is fed across the width of the fabric.
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Warp-Knitted Fabric
Made on a straight or circular knitting machine, loops interlock vertically, along the length of the fabric.
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Properties of Single Jersey Knit
(Weft Knit) stretchy, drapes well, doesn't crease easily, ladders easily.
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Properties of Double Jersey
(Weft Knit) durable, not very elastic, retains shape.
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Properties of Warp Knit
Some elasticity, does not ladder, can't be unravelled.
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Definition of Non-Woven Fabrics
Made directly from fibres rather than from a yearn, through bonding or felting.
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Properties of Felt
No strength, drape or elasticity. Does not fray, warm to wear and resilient.
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Bonded-fibre Fabric
Made from a web of fibres, bonded with adhesives or solvents.
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Definition of Smart Materials
A material which is able to react to changes in the environment without human intervention.
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Smart Materials include one that:
monitor body functions, provide support, change colour, are self cleaning and track movement.
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Why do fabrics have a 'finish' to them?
To make them more suitable for use.
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Types of Finishes
Physical, Chemical, Biological.
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The physical finishing process:
uses heat, pressure/ steam and machine processes.
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The chemical finishing process:
uses chemicals, which have an impact on the environment.
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The biological finishing process:
uses natural enzymes, which have little impact on the environment.
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Types of Physical Finishing Processes
Brushing, Calendaring, Heat-setting.
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Types of Chemical Finishing Processes
Bleaching, Shrink Resistant, Crease Resistant, Flame Resistant.
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Types of Biological Finishing Processes
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What is the role of the British Standards Institute?
They develop the tests that set standards that products have to meet to ensure their safety and quality.
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Tests done in Industry
Tests are carried out on fibres, yarns and fabric before they are manufactured.
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What does the Kite Mark show?
That the product has been independently tested under strict conditions and complies with BSI standards.
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What does the CE Mark show?
The product meets the European Safety Standards.
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What is the definition of dyeing?
The permanent application of a colorant to a fibre to give a uniform colour.
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Different classifications of Dyeing
Direct Dye, Reactive Dye and Acid Dye.
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Definition of Colour Fastness
The resistance of the material's colour to fading or running.
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Process of Hand Dyeing
Fabric is immersed into dye bath. When desired colour is achieved the fabric is removed. Fabric is then rinsed to remove excess dye.
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What does the strength of the dye colour depend on?
Amount of time in the dye bath, absorbency of the fabric, the original fabric colour.
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What is Block Printing?
Using metal or wooden blocks to make different shapes through stamping colours on to fabrics.
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What is Screen Printing?
A pattern is printed onto fabric through a stencil held in place by a screen.
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Ways in which materials can be joined:
Stitching, Fusing and Heat-sealing.
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What is Stitching?
Stitching 2 fabrics together producing an unfinished seam.
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What is Fusing?
Permanently joining 2 fabrics together using an adhesive resin.
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What is Heat-sealing?
Setting a material in shape, such as pleats.
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What is CAD?
Computer-aided design, all the computer applications and hardware devices that can be used to aid digital design.
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Advantages of use CAD
Quick, Easy to test, Modify ideas, reduces Mistakes, cuts Costs.
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What is CAM?
Computer-aided manufacturer, using software to operate machine tools.
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Uses of CAM
Knitting, Weaving, Cutting, Sewing, Embroidery.
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Advantages of using CAM
Quick, Consistent, Efficient, Accurate.
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Definition of One-Off Production
A one-off textile product is made to meet an individuals requirements.
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Definition of Batch Production
Items are produced in specific quantities.
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Definition of Mass Production
Items are produced in large quantities.
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Definition of Just-in-Time Stock Control
Materials and components are delivered a short time before they are needed.
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Why are care labels important on textile products?
They give the consumer useful information needed about product maintenance.
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Information included on care labels:
Fibre content, flammability, standard care symbols, standard size.
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Job of the Fashion Designer
Creating and producing products, keeping up to date with trends, selecting and buying materials, overseeing production.
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Job of the Buyer
Managing stock levels, writing reports, presenting new ranges, seeking feedback, training junior staff.
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Job of the Merchandiser
Planning ranges, producing layout plans, monitoring slow sellers, training junior staff.
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Job of the Fabric and Garment Technologist
Spinning fibres into yarns, identifying latest fabric trends, overseeing processes, ensuring quality of products.
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Job of the Display Designer
Making presentations for potential clients, coming up with design ideas, working within a budget.
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Environmental Issues within Textiles
Use of fertilisers and pesticides, deforestation due to crops, use of chemicals, waste, packaging.
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Moral Issues within Textiles
Exploitation of workers, use of pesticides and fertilisers, working conditions.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Spandex/ Elastane


Commercial Names:Lycra

Card 3




Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Triacetate Rayon


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5




Preview of the back of card 5
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