AS AQA Textiles - ALL of section A

Detailed notes on everything you need to know in section A.

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Jessica S
  • Created on: 15-05-12 16:33
Preview of AS AQA Textiles - ALL of section A

First 267 words of the document:

Section A ­ Materials and Components
Fibre Types
o Textile materials are made from natural or synthetic fibre-forming polymers.
o A polymer is the name for a combination of large molecules, made up from smaller chains of monomers.
o A fibre is a fine and flexible textile raw material, high ratio of length to thickness.
Textile materials are made in three stages:
1. Spinning fibres into yarns
2. Weaving or knitting yarns to make fabrics
3. Finishing fabrics to make them more useful
Natural fibres
Natural fibres come from plants and animals: cotton from the cotton plant, linen from the flax plant, wool from
sheep, silk from silkworms. Natural fibres are usually short staple fibres, which need to be lined up and twisted
to be useable. The only exception is silk, which is a Silk is the only natural filament fibre.
1. Natural fibres from plants:
They are made from cellulose.
2. Natural fibres from animals and hair:
Silk ­ a natural filament fibre (not staple)
They are made from keratin.
Regenerated fibres
Regenerated natural fibres, such as viscose and modal, are manufactured from the cellulose in wood pulp. This is
dissolved in chemicals and extracted to produce fine continuous filaments of pure regenerated cellulose.
Synthetic fibres
Most synthetic fibres are manufactured from petrochemicals, using the process of polymerisation. Synthetic
fibres are continuous filament fibres, which are sometimes cut into staple lengths.
The main synthetic fibres are:

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Viscose - pine trees (regenerated) or petrochemicals
Acrylic - coal and oil
Polyester - coal and oil
Nylon (Polyamide) - coal and oil
Microfibre technology combines a high number of very fine fibres into one yarn that is incredibly small. A
microfibre is 60-100 times finer than a human hair.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Yarn Types
A yarn is a fine, continuous length of fibres or filaments with or without a twist.
The thickness of the yarn (yarn count) and the tightness of the yarn twist affect a fabrics weight, flexibility,
handle, texture, appearance and end-use.
Twist is put into yarns during spinning to make them stronger, so they are suitable for weaving or
They can be spun clock wise (Z twist) or anticlockwise (S twist).…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Core-spun yarns enhance fabrics, making them more comfortable to wear.
Core-spun yarns enhance fabric and are used in woven and knitted fabrics.
Strong sewing threads are often made with a filament polyester core (for strength), covered by a
cotton yarn (stops needle from overheating against melting the polyester).
Fancy Yarns
These are produced by special spinning to give irregularities, such as a loop or a slub.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Most fabrics are made by weaving or knitting yarns together. Non-woven fabrics are made by bonding or felting
fibres together. A fabric's appearance, properties and end-use can be affected by the way it was constructed.
Woven fabrics
Woven fabrics are made up of a weft (yarn going across width of the fabric, left) and a warp (yarn going down
length of the loom). The side of the fabric where the wefts are double back to form a non-fraying edge is called
the selvedge.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Page 79)
Crepe fabric
Crepe fabrics have a crinkled or puckered surface, with no definite pattern.
Woven crepe is produced by S and Z twist yarns, a crepe weave construction, a chemical or thermal
treatment to shrink the fabric differently.
Jacquard weave pattern
The arrangement of different weaves in different colours gives a complicated pattern, like a flower.
It is used for expensive upholstery fabrics or formal evening wear.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Weft knitted fabric (page 85)
Weft knits are used for socks, T-shirts and jumpers.
o Weft knits, made by hand or machine.
o Weft-knitted fabric is made by looping together long lengths of yarn.
o This makes the fabric soft, stretchy and comfortable.
o However weft knits can unravel.
o The yarn runs in rows across the fabric. If a stitch is dropped it will ladder down the length of the fabric.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Warp knitted fabric (page 87)
Warp-knitted fabric is made by machine and is used for swimwear, underwear and geotextiles.
o Warp-knitted fabric is made by CAD/CAM knitting machines.
o The loops interlock vertically along the length of the fabric.
o Warp knits are slightly stretchy and do not ladder and can't unravel.
o Warp knitting is faster than weft knitting and is the cheapest method of fabric production using yarns.
o However they only work well with filament yarn, not staple, so is less popular.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

Needle felts are elastic and lightweight.
It is used for floor coverings, interlinings, upholstery materials, mattress covers and filters.
Bonded-fibre fabrics
These are made from webs of synthetic fibres bonded together with adhesives, solvents or by heat.
Some of the fibres have thermoplastic properties which bond the fibres together.
They are cheap to produce, but not as strong as woven or knitted fabrics.
They are easy to sew, crease-resistant, do not fray and are stable to washing and dry-cleaning.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

These are textile materials and products which are manufactured mainly for their technical performance rather
than their aesthetic or functional properties. These include industries involved with transport, medical and
hygiene, fire-protective wear, engineering and packaging.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Textiles resources:

See all Textiles resources »See all resources »