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Section A ­ Materials and Components
Fibre Types

o Textile materials are made from natural or synthetic fibre-forming polymers.
o A polymer is the name for a combination of large molecules, made up from smaller chains of monomers.
o A fibre is a fine and flexible textile raw material, high…

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Viscose - pine trees (regenerated) or petrochemicals
Acrylic - coal and oil
Polyester - coal and oil
Nylon (Polyamide) - coal and oil

Microfibre technology combines a high number of very fine fibres into one yarn that is incredibly small. A
microfibre is 60-100 times finer than a human…

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Yarn Types

A yarn is a fine, continuous length of fibres or filaments with or without a twist.

The thickness of the yarn (yarn count) and the tightness of the yarn twist affect a fabrics weight, flexibility,
handle, texture, appearance and end-use.


Twist is put into yarns during spinning…

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Core-spun yarns enhance fabrics, making them more comfortable to wear.
Core-spun yarns enhance fabric and are used in woven and knitted fabrics.
Strong sewing threads are often made with a filament polyester core (for strength), covered by a
cotton yarn (stops needle from overheating against melting the polyester).

Fancy Yarns…

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Most fabrics are made by weaving or knitting yarns together. Non-woven fabrics are made by bonding or felting
fibres together. A fabric's appearance, properties and end-use can be affected by the way it was constructed.

Woven fabrics

Woven fabrics are made up of a weft (yarn going across width of…

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(Page 79)
Crepe fabric
Crepe fabrics have a crinkled or puckered surface, with no definite pattern.
Woven crepe is produced by S and Z twist yarns, a crepe weave construction, a chemical or thermal
treatment to shrink the fabric differently.
Jacquard weave pattern
The arrangement of different weaves in different…

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Weft knitted fabric (page 85)
Weft knits are used for socks, T-shirts and jumpers.

o Weft knits, made by hand or machine.
o Weft-knitted fabric is made by looping together long lengths of yarn.
o This makes the fabric soft, stretchy and comfortable.
o However weft knits can unravel.

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Warp knitted fabric (page 87)
Warp-knitted fabric is made by machine and is used for swimwear, underwear and geotextiles.

o Warp-knitted fabric is made by CAD/CAM knitting machines.
o The loops interlock vertically along the length of the fabric.
o Warp knits are slightly stretchy and do not ladder and…

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Needle felts are elastic and lightweight.
It is used for floor coverings, interlinings, upholstery materials, mattress covers and filters.

Bonded-fibre fabrics

These are made from webs of synthetic fibres bonded together with adhesives, solvents or by heat.
Some of the fibres have thermoplastic properties which bond the fibres together.

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These are textile materials and products which are manufactured mainly for their technical performance rather
than their aesthetic or functional properties. These include industries involved with transport, medical and
hygiene, fire-protective wear, engineering and packaging.

Fabric Technology Fabric properties End-use
Polar fleece Brushed polyester Lightweight Fleece jumpers and
soft jackets…


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