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  • Fenianism
    • Founded in America in October 1866 by James Stephens
    • America
      • Strong fenian community as Irish immigration was at 100,000 a year in 1860
      • Fenian Brotherhood
      • Clan na Gael founded 1867
    • Britain
      • Strong fenian community after Irish emigrating from famine
      • 3.5% in 1861 and many second generation were born there
    • Ireland
      • In mid 1860s- 54,000 fenians in Ireland
    • Fenians believe that Irish nationalism should be non-sectarian and non-clerical (open to everyone and not influenced by religion) Not associated with Catholic Church
    • Events of 1867
      • Failed uprisings in Chester, County Kerry, Cork, Limerick and Dublin because of poor organisation
        • Led to a series of arrests including leaders Colonel Kelly and Timothy Deasy in Sep 1867
          • As these were brought to court, a gang staged a rescue that led to a policeman getting shot and killed
            • Three fenians, Allen, Larkin and O'Brien were executed for his murder and became known as the "Manchester Martyrs"
              • Caused sympathy for fenianism, especially from catholic church
      • In December, another group of fenians attempted a rescue from Clerkenwell prison by blowing up a wall
        • This went wrong and a number of civilians were killed
        • This caused alot of anger and the lines between constitutional nationalists and terrorists were becoming blurred


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