Phobias: explanations

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  • Explanations of phobias
    • behavioural: classical conditioning- negative associations from a stimulus in the environment
      • Little Albert: before conditioning-loud noise=fear rat =no fear
        • During conditioning: loud noise and rat= fear
          • After conditioning:white rat=fear
    • Psychoanalytic: Freud- Little Hans
      • Interested in his penis, mother told him off and he had a fear of castration.
      • Saw a horse, afraid it would bite him. A conflict developed between him and his father
      • dream about the crumpled  giraffe. Horse represented  his father.
      • Going through the oepidus complex, obsessed with his mum and has to identify with the father i.e plumber dream.
    • Biomedical/ genetic
      • Biologically prepared. survival threat in evolutionary term. Ohman-house, face, spider and snake. (GSR)
      • OST: 64% of blood phobics reported having a 1st degree relative with a blood phobia.
    • Cognitive: Di nardo noted that only 50% of people with dig phobias had traumatic experience. Must be they way we process the situation.


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