Evolutionary approach to relationships

  • Created by: Saf54
  • Created on: 13-02-19 16:46
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  • Evolutionary explanations
    • Sexual selection and human reproductive behaviour
      • Anisogamy- this difference between male and female sex cells
        • Male sex cells
          • Produced in large quantities, quickly replenished and created continuously from puberty to old age
        • Female sex cells
          • A lot of energy to produce, created in limited numbers and only lasts for a number of fertile years
      • Before DNA testing males weren’t sure whether the baby was actually theirs
        • They’d go around impregnating as many women as possible
      • Women wanted a committed relationship with somebody who has resources e.g. wealth
        • Ensures the child’s survival
      • David Buss (1989)
        • Surveyed 10,000 adults in 33 countries
          • Females universally put  more importance on resources e.g. intelligence, good wealth
          • Males preferred younger and emphasised their ability to reproduce e.g. attractiveness
    • Inter and intra-sexual selection
      • Inter-sexual selection
        • “Female choice”- greater investment of time,energy and resources so need to be careful when picking a partner
          • Need to make sure it’s the right genetic fit and they have the right resources to support them
        • Clark and Hatfield(1989)
          • Asking the same question “I’ve noticed you around the campus.i find you very attractive.will you go to bed with me tonight?”
            • 75% of male students agreed but not a single female said yes
          • Male and female student volunteers to approach opposite sex students on uni campus
      • Intra-sexual selection
        • Male strategy- competing with other males for the female mate
          • Winner reproduces and passes on his successful genes e.g. strong,large male will produce stronger sons
        • Difference in body size and physical appearance between male and females- physical dimorphism
          • Sexual selection favours strong and aggressive males
            • Females don’t need to compete so physical strength and aggression will hold no evolutionary advantage to them
    • Sexual selection and mate choice
      • Devindra Singh(1993,2002)
        • Waist to hip ratio was a sign of females fertility(big hips, slim waist)
        • Measured Miss America winners and found that they’re attractive if they have a 0.7 ratio difference
      • Dunbar&waynforth (1995)
        • Researched “lonely hearts” in American newspapers
          • Women described themselves in terms of physical attractiveness and youth (exciting,flirty,curvy)
            • Men advertised their resources and intelligence more than women did
    • Evolutionary approach
    • Paternal certainty and jealousy
      • Buss(1995)
        • Explain difference in males and females- men are more jealous due to woman’s infidelity which could lead to raising someone else’s child
        • Females are jealous of males emotional infidelity as it could chase withdrawal of resources affecting the child’s survival
      • Buss (1992) : male students showed greater dustress(galvanic skin response) when asked to imagine partners sexual infidelity whilst women were more stressed about emotional infidelity


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