OCR Evaluation of Ethical Theories

Made by year 12, Miss Clarke and carrot sticks

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  • Evaluation of Ethical Theories
    • Utilitarianism
      • STRENGTHS
        • Easy to follow
        • PREFERENCE
          • Considers people individually
          • More caring
          • Flexible
          • Selfless
          • Places more value over human life
        • RULE
          • Universal
            • Promotes Fairness
          • Clear set of rules to abide by
          • Places an emphasis on the quality of happiness rather than how much happiness is produced by an act.
        • ACT
          • Straightforward
          • Democratic
          • Promotes maximisation of happiness
          • Considers each in situation seperately
      • WEAKNESSES
        • ACT
          • No defense for the minority (obama)
          • No intrinsic value for human life
          • Can't always predict the consequences
          • Justifies immoral actions
          • Oversimplistic
          • Treats human life as a number/object
          • Can justify abhorrent acts
        • RULE
          • Sometimes rules should be broken
            • Conflicting duties (Kant
          • Different definitions of happiness
            • Happiness is subjective
          • Vague
            • Moral compass?
          • Whilst the concept works, may not work in practice.
            • Different definitions of happiness
              • Happiness is subjective
          • Is it really teleological? (removed the greatest strength)
    • Natural Law
      • STRENGTHS
        • Precepts are straightforward
          • Secondary precepts are society dependent therefore reasonable
          • Easy to put into practice
          • Reasonable (Primary too)
          • Self-Evident truths (through reason)
        • Highlights importance of human reason in decision making
      • WEAKNESSES
        • "Worship God" - if you are not religious it does not apply to you
        • Aquinas places no emphasis on a hierarchy on the precepts
          • IVF - for and against??
            • Should you do some precepts or all?
            • No guidance on dealing with conflicting rules
              • Doctrine of double effect
        • What if you dont know your purpose?
          • Or how to find it?
        • Sometimes there is genuine mis-match between interior and exterior acts
          • cannot predict consequences
          • Real and apparent goods
            • apparent goods can be unclear
            • cannot predict consequences
            • Ad hoc
        • DUTY - what if you dont want to do your duty
          • Father and son
          • A possible hierarchy to duties??
        • Not specific enough
        • Can justify abhorrent acts through secondary precepts
        • What if you dont believe in God?
          • You can be moral and not believe in God
    • KANTIAN ETHICS
      • STRENGTHS
        • Intrinsic value of human life
          • Respect
            • Dignity
        • straight forward
        • emphasis on duty, not feelings
          • makes you do your duty
            • eg. Parents
        • Fair (universal)
          • Categorical imperative
          • If everyone did it, no evil...?
            • But you cant force people!
        • followable
      • WEAKNESSES
        • Not allowed to use your emotions (too duty focused)
        • Lacks compassion
        • Inflexible (no consequences considered)
        • Conflicting duties
        • How do you deal with conflicting duties?
          • ROSS
            • Prima facie duties
            • "deepest moral convictions"
              • Contradiction from Kant
                • Reduces it down to just another ethical theory that considers own feelings/situation
  • Eudiamonistic
    • PREFERENCE
      • Considers people individually
      • More caring
      • Flexible
      • Selfless
      • Places more value over human life
    • focusses on happiness
  • Or to the situation
    • Not specific enough

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