Evaluate the view that some water management schemes are more effective than others

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  • Evaluate the view that some water management schemes are more effective than others (20 marks)
    • Introduction
      • No water management in place = increases water insecurity
      • Hard Engineering Schemes
        • Dam construction
        • Desalination
        • Water Transfer Projects
      • Soft Engineering Schemes
        • Smart Farming
        • Rainwater Harvesting
        • Water Reclaimation
    • Hard Engineering Schemes
      • Desalination
        • Extracts salt water = safe, drinking water = increases water security
        • BUT only developed in HICs as it is very expensive
      • Water Transfer Project - China
        • South-North China
        • Provides 25 billion ^3 of fresh water
        • Increases employment
        • More than 300,000 displaced during process
      • Dam Construction - Three Gorges Dam
        • Yangzee River
        • Increases globalisation = cargo space
        • Provides power for China = reduces emissions
        • Poor water quality
    • Soft Engineering Schemes
      • Smart Farming
        • China and Australia
          • measuring intra-field variability in crop fields
        • Vertical Farming - Kent
          • Cultivating plants without soil +water is recycled
      • Rainwater Harvesting
        • Harvesting jars collect rainwater from roofs + store water
          • Holds 1500 litres approx
      • Water Reclamation
        • Removes objects, sediment, bacteria
          • Water is then treated then put through microfiltration
            • Reverse osmosis and then microscopic contaminants are removed
    • Conclusion
      • Although HES are effective and increase  water security
        • Expensive and can only be implemented in the more developed regions
      • If everyone could implement soft engineering methods like rainwater harvesting
        • would be effective in areas with high precipitation rates (UK)
        • Households become less dependent on companies to supply masses of water = cheaper in long term


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