Mitigation and Adaptation to combat climate change

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  • Created on: 04-05-18 14:46
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  • Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies to combat climate change.
    • Mitigation
      • Renewable Switching
        • Case  Study
          • New Forest Energy is a renewable energy development company in  Southern England, on the edge of the New Forest National Park.
            • Selling their renewable power to Opus Energy since 2013, from three large solar parks of up to 7.8MW capacity. The energy from these generators then gets passed onto consumers–  providing sustainable, UK-sourced renewable power at no extra cost.
            • They install large-scale renewable energy generators, building solar parks and rooftop installations across the country to generate clean, sustainable power to sell.
          • Osney Lock Hydro:A hydroelectric power station in Oxfordshire, A community-owned hydro plant to be built on the Thames,
            • Generated close to 150,000kWh of electricity from May 2015 to May 2016.
          • Abellon Clean Energy, India
            • Abellon, based in Ahmedabad, India, with offices in the U.S., Italy and Ghana, started in 2008
            • Runs a system that replaces the coal and lignite used in factories with a fuel made from the farmers' crop waste.
        • Positives
          • Significant reduction in emissions as most sources provide low to no emissions.
          • Stable energy prices and the supply will not fluctuate as much as non renewable sources.
          • Provides options for other areas for example micro-stations for remote areas.
          • Reliable infinite sources of energy providing increased energy security.
        • Negatives
          • Vulnerable to variations in the natural resources such as rainfall or sunshine.
          • Require large areas of land for solar or wind farms or require rivers for hydroelectric power in order to produce large scale dams.
          • Unable to produce large quantities in comparison to fossil fuels such as coal.
          • High development cots due to technology required for initial production e.g. solar panels or wind turbines. Therefore low income countries or countries in poverty cannot access these methods.
        • Background
          • The switching from fossil fuels to renewable sources. This includes solar, hydroelectric,, wind, geothermal, tidal and bio-fuels.
      • Carbon Taxation
        • Case Studiy
          • Australia
            • Australia was in 2012 the highest carbon emitter per head in the developed world
            • Introduced a carbon pricing scheme through the Clean Energy Act 2011, which came into effect on 1 July 2012
            • The tax reportedly increased the cost of electricity for the average family by 10 percent
            • Approximately 75,000 businesses paid the carbon tax directly or paid an equivalent penalty through changes to duties and rebates.
            • Each year, selected entities were required to surrender one emissions unit for every tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) they produced. In the first year (2012–13), carbon units could be purchased from the Clean Energy Regulator CER) for a fixed price of AUD23 per unit raising to 24.15 the following year.
            • Those who did not surrender any or enough units, incurred a "unit shortfall charge". This charge created an incentive for companies to surrender extra units under the mechanism rather than pay a higher unit shortfall charge
            • This would transition to a cap-and-trade emissions trading scheme on 1 July 2015
        • Positives
          • Raises revenue which can be spent on other mitigation strategies.
          • Reduces environmental costs associated with excess carbon emission.
          • Enables greater social efficiency as people pay full social costs.
          • Encourages firms/consumers to look for alternative energy sources such as solar power.
          • Makes polluters pay external cost of carbon emissions.
        • Negatives
          • Administration costs for measuring emissions and collecting tax.
          • Companies may shift production to countries without carbon tax.
          • May encourage tax evasion- companies pollute in secret to avoid tax.
          • Businesses claim higher tax which may discourage investment and economic growth.
          • Difficult to measure external cost and how much tax should be.
        • Background
          • A carbon tax is a fee or cost paid by users of fossil fuels, which is directly linked to the level of carbon dioxide emissions that the fuel produces.
          • It won't guarantee a reduction in the level of carbon dioxide emission but instead sends a message to encourage changing to a form of energy that produces fewer emissions.
      • Definition
        • Mitigating is to rebalance the carbon cycle by changing our way of lives through technology or behaviours.
    • Adaptation
      • Solar Radiation Management
        • Case Study
          • Marine Cloud Brightening Project (MCBP)
            • Moss Landing, California, USA (Between Monterey and Santa Cruz)
            • Initial support for development of hardware came from the Bill Gates-backed Fund for Innovative Climate and Energy Research (FICER). Currently funding is at $16.3 million
            • The first land-based experimental use of cloud brightening hardware is now expected to take place in August 2018. The project hopes to move to ship-based tests within 2 years and then a large cloud brightening experiment 2-3 years after that.
            • Aims to test the premise that spraying a fine mist of sea water into clouds can make them whiter, reflecting more sunlight back into space.
          • Most case studies for this strategy are only in research phases due to the radical large scale approaches involved and negative views from people. This research typically occurs in HICs due to the high costs.
        • Positives
          • Involves involves ideas and plans that would intervene in the climate system to effectively counter act global warming.
          • Relatively Cheap
          • Has the potential to cool the Earth in months.
          • Reduces ice sheet and sea ice melting.
          • Reduces sea level rise.
          • Potentially increase terrestrial uptake of carbon dioxide.
        • Negatives
          • Unknown & unexpected consequences
          • Potential Human Error
          • Has a negative impact on ozone depletion and doesn't benefit ocean acidification.
          • Negative environmental impacts such as pollution.
          • Can become under commercial control
          • Reduces solar power efficiency
          • Impacts other technology within space such as satellites.
        • Background
          • Seawater sprays into the atmosphere causing cloud brightening. This occurs by providing hygroscopic nuclei for condensation to take place and create bright clouds that reflect the sun's energy back into space.
          • Sulfur Pumping into the stratosphere: the aerosol particles formed reflect the sun's energy back into space.
          • Space based Reflectors: trillions of wafer thin discs in stationary orbit between the sun and the earth which reduce the amount of sun's energy reaching the planet.
      • Resilient Agricultural Systems
        • Case Study
          • USA
            • In the U.S. GE soybeans make up 93% of the U.S. soybean crop, and GE corn is up to 70% of the corn crop.
          • The Water Efficient Maize for Africa (WEMA)
            • Africa is a drought-prone continent, making farming risky for millions of smallholder farmers who rely on rainfall to water their crops.
            • Maize is the most widely grown staple crop in Africa – more than 300 million people in Africa depend on it as their main food source – but  it is severely affected by frequent drought.
            • It is a public- private partnership that  focuses on developing, field testing and deploying new maize hybrids in Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda.
            • Seed companies will not pay royalties for WEMA hybrids in order to make them more affordable for farmers.
            • Increase yields by 20-35 percent in moderate drought conditions
            • Provide an additional two million tonnes of maize that could feed 14 – 21 million people in the long-term.
            • Reduced need for pesticides then brings environmental and human health benefits
        • Positives
          • Increased soil carbon content
          • Due to crop resistance against impacts of climate change such a drought and saltier waters alongside other methods overall crop yields are increased and so a more stable agriculture industry can be maintained.
          • Helps cut down on the use of chemicals such as fertilizers which reduces carbon emissions.
          • More water effective methods and others which combat water pollution leading to reduce impacts on water insecurity.
        • Negatives
          • Genetic modification is still debated but is increasingly used to produce resistant strains e.g. soya and rice
          • High energy costs from indoor and intensive farming.
          • Growing food insecurity in many places adds pressure to find 'quick fixes'.
          • More expensive technology, seeds and breeds unavailable to poor subsistence farmers without aid.
        • Background
          • More indoor intensive farming.
          • Low tech measures and better practices generate healthier soils and may help carbon dioxide sequestration and water storage: selective irrigation, mulching, cover crops, crop rotation, reduced ploughing, agroforestry.
          • Higher-tech, drought tolerant species and other help for resistance to climate change and increased diseases.
      • Definition
        • Adapting is to live with the consequences of climate change and use technology to help cope with the impacts.

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