Essay 2: Outline and Evaluate Alternatives to the Multi-Store Model

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  • Essay 2: Outline and Evaluate Alternatives to the Multi-Store Model
    • One Alternative is LEVELS OF PROCESSING
      • Other limitations of LOP
        • Concept of deep processing is vague. Rsearchers disagree on what it involves. C and T say Semantic procesing is deep, Tyler says deep processing involves effort. Palmere says deep processing involves elaboration
      • How LOP improves on MSM
        • Supporting evidence has more ecological validity as use incidental recall tasks- rather than intentional recall tasks
        • Explains how information is transferred from STM to LTM (semantic processing- adding meaning)
        • Explains how prior learning from LTM interacts with new information in STM
        • Face Validity- It makes sense: that in order to retain information long-term we have to understand it first.
      • Supporting Evidence of LOP
        • Eysench and Eysench (1980)- Distinctiveness
          • The distinctive words are processed more deeply then the everyday words. The distinctive words tends to be more unique, as unusual, have to give more meaning and think about then more
        • Craik and Tulving(1975)-Depth
          • It supports the levels of semantic (deep) processing as physical and phonemic processing are shallow whereas semantic is deeper, so will go into LTM. This is due to having to put meaning to words
        • Mandler (1967)- Organisation
          • In order to catagorise the words you have to put meaning to them. Found that the deeper the processing the more semantic the words are.
      • Critising Evidence of LOP
        • Tyler (1979)- Effort
          • Deep processing isn't just semantic processing and giving words meaning but the amout of effort is put in.
        • Palmere et al (1987)- Elaboration
          • Argues that deep processing isn't just semantic, it's elaboration
      • What Limitations of MSM, LOP doesn't improve on?
        • Doesn't explain or investigate how visual and spatial information is processed-supporting evidence had tended to use verbal info rather than visual
      • LOP model addresses SOME of the criticisms of MSM
        • Additionally LOP argues that STM and LTM may not be separate STRUCTURES, instead they are different levels of processing. Shallow processing leads to ST retention. Deep leads to LT retention. The deeper the processing the longer-lasting the memory
          • Craik and Tulving
            • Acoustic processing = Low recall, Words are processed by their sound
            • Physical processing = Low recall, Word it'self not registered
            • Semantic processing = Highest recall, Words are semantically processed
        • Specifically it argues that whilst verbal rehearsal is sufficient to MAINTAIN info in the STm, it doesnt explain how info is re-encoded from acoustic to semantic. In order to re-encode info a more elaborate process than verbal rehearsal is needed.
    • Second Alternative is WORKING MEMORY MODEL
      • This model was devised by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974.
        • This model focuses on STM. Baddeley and Hitch criticised the concept of STM as merely a storage area, arguing that it is an active processing area, where we process info surrently being used
        • B+H also criticised the concept of STM as a single store which is encoded only acoustically, arguing that it can be sub-divided into separate areas for acoustic and visual/spatial info.
          • Baddeley and Hitch built on Paivlo's (1972) dual coding theory by arguing that we can process info in STM acoustically and visually simultaneously
        • With that being said they thought that the STM store should/ could be sub-divided into the CENTRAL EXECUTIVE, VISO-SPATIAL SKETCHPAD, EPISODIC BUFFER AND THE PHONOLOGICAL LOOP
          • Central excutive
            • The central executive achieves the  above functions by directiong information to the phonological loop or the VSSP
            • Uses any form of encoding
            • Serves as an organising function. enabling us to:
              • Selectively attend o a specific source of information.
              • Switch attention between different inputs
              • Achieve a balance between tasks when our attention needs to be divided
            • However, it is unclear as how the central executive makes decisions about where to send the information for processing.
          • The PHONOLOGICAL LOOP is made up of 2 sections: THE PHONOLOGICAL STORE AND THE ARTICULARTY CONTROL SYSTEM
            • THE PHONOLOGICAL STORE- A sound-based store that holds items for 2-3 secs. spoken words enter directly
            • THE ARTICULARTY CONTROL SYSTEM- enables items to be held for longer through the process of verbal rehearsal (sub-vocal verbalisation). It converts written words to acoustic code so that it xan be stored in the phonological store.
            • Characteristics of the Phonological Loop
              • Capacity is there limited to the amount of information that can be repeated.
              • There is a limit to the amount that can be held in the phonological loop
              • If there is too much information, it cant be rehearsed frequently enough to prevent decay
            • Evidence concerning the Phonological Loop
              • Baddeley and Lewis (1975) Articulatory Suppression
                • Found that participants scores were lower than the comparison task when performed vocalisation task compared to control group
              • Baddeley et al (1975) word length effect
                • 1st study participants recalled more monosyllabic words than polysyllabic words. Later study found that memory span is limited by time( about 25 secs) rather than number of chunks. We can recall as many words as we can verbalise in 2 secs
            • Advantages of the Phonological loop
              • The fewer items that are processed the fewer items remain within the memory system.
              • The limit to the capacity is explained by the time required for mental articulation- if items are too long and take more time to 'say in your head' then fewer items will be processed.
              • Explains why similar sounding items tend to become muddled as phonological loop is essentially an acoustic store
          • Visuo-spatial Sketchpad
            • Evidence concerning the VSSP
              • Baddeley et al (1973) Dual task technique
                • Found that pp's were unable to carry out 2 visual tasks simultaneously, However, they were able to carry out the tracking task at the same time as a verbal task.
            • Holds Visuo-Spatial information
              • This system is separate to the phonological loop enabling acoustic and visual information to be processed simultaneously (parallel processing)
            • Disadvantages of the VSSP
              • Logie (1995) suggested that the VSSP could be sub-divided into
                • A visual cashe which stores info about colour and shape
                • An inner scribe concerned with spatial relationships and movement
            • Advantages of the VSSP
              • Explains how an acoustic and visual item can be processed simultaneously whereas two acoustic OR two visual-spatial items need to be processed sequentially
              • We can listen to music and drive along a motorway lane as the same time but if we try to visualise (e.g a football game) and drive along the motorway lane we may find ourselves drifting into the next lane as we cant focus on 2 visual tasks at the same time.
      • Disadvantages of the WORKING MEMORY MODEL
        • Bunge study suggests that it's not just type of task that determine whether tasks can be carried out simultaneously but also the amount of attention they require
        • VSSP as a single store
          • Logie and Farrah suggest it can be sub-divided into Visual and Spatial areas
        • Central executive- WMM doesnt explain HOW it decides which slave system to send info to
      • Advantages of the WORKING MEMORY MODEL
        • Explanatory not just descriptions:
          • Focuses on both structure and process and is therefore able to explain characteristics
            • E.g explain acoustic confsion
            • E.g explain limited capacity of phonological loop
        • Separate phonological Loop and VSSP explains ability to carry out verbal and visual tasks simultaneously
        • Makes hypothesis that can be tested scientifically

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