Essay 1: Outline and Evaluate the Multi-Store Model (25 marks)

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  • Created by: Smodge12
  • Created on: 11-03-14 18:40
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  • Essay 1: Outline and Evaluate the Multi-Store Model (25 marks)
    • P-Introduce the multi-store model of memory
      • Memory- Mulit-store model of Memory was designed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968
      • Describes memory as a series of store through which information flows sequentically
      • This model was the first systematic model of memory
    • E- elaborate- describe MSM in concise detail
      • The Mutli-store model of memory has 3 separate stores
        • LONG-TERM MEMORY
          • Capacity is unlimited
          • Information is encoded semantically
          • Duration is unlimited
          • Information can be lost through interference or cue retrieval faliure
        • SENSORY MEMORY-Info enters from environment.
          • Relevant information is passed into Short-term Memory
          • Small amounts of information enters for a very brief time (milisecs)
          • Information isn't encoded= stays in raw form Iconic (visual) or echoic (acoustic)
          • Non-relevant information is lost through decay
        • SHORT-TERM MEMORY-Through attention information is entered from the sensory memory
          • Duration is limited ( 18 secs)
          • Information can be lost due to displacement or decay
          • Capacity is limited (7+/- 2 items)
          • Information is encoded acoustically
    • E- Evidence- Explain how studies support existence of separate stores.
      • Glanzer and Cunitz (1966)
        • Aim: To replace Murdocks study to further investigate whether STM and LTM are separate stores
        • Conclusion
          • Participants who carried out 30 secs forgot the more recent words as they were not able to rehearse them over the 30 secs retention interval and therefore had decayed.
          • Words at beginning of list had, had time to be rehearsed and has been transferred into LTM. Participants who carried out the interference task for 10 secs still had the more recently presented words in their STM as they had not decayed.
        • Findings
          • Participants who were asked to count backwards for 30 secs recalled less words from the end of the list than those who counted backwards from 10 secs.
            • Primary effect remained but recency effect disappeared
      • The case study of Clive Wearing (support or critise the MSM)
        • Critises MSM
          • Clives LTM impairment is selective, his procedural memory is intact (e.g. he can play piano) His declarative memory is impaired (e.g. he can't remember his wedding day.)
          • LTM may not be a single store. It may be subdivided into different areas
        • Supports MSM
          • Since STM is intact but LTM is impaired they must be separate areas
          • Clive's LTM's impaired- he can't lay down new LTM e.g he cant recall that his son gained a PhD.
          • Clive's STM's intact (he can retain info for 30 secs while he's using it. E.g. hold a conversation)
      • Murdock (1962)- Evidence for separate STM and LTM stores
        • Findings
          • Participants  remembered more words from the beginning of the list and the end of the list than from the middle of the list.
            • This is called the position effect
        • Conclusions
          • Words in the middle of the list had been in the STM for longer and were displaced by the more recently presented words at end of the list and therefore lost to the memory system
          • Murdock suggested that words from the beginning of the list were recalled because participants had been able to rehearse hose words and put them into LTM
            • This is known as Primary effect
          • Words most recently presented, had not had time to decay and still in STM
            • This as known as recency effect
      • Baddeley (1966)- Encoding in the STM and LTM
        • Findings
          • In the STM test participants had trouble recalling acoustically similar words
          • In the LTM participants had trouble recalling semantically similar words
        • Aim: To investigate how information is encoded in the STM and LTM
        • Conclusion
          • The pattern of confusion between similar words suggests that STM is encoded acoustically and the LTM is encoded semantically
          • As the STM and LTM are encoded differently it suggests that they are different ares.
    • C- Critise- discuss strengths and limitations of MSM
      • Limitations
        • MSM is too simplistic
          • i) STM is described as a single store which stores/ processes acoustic information
            • No explanation of how visual information is stored/ processed is offered
          • ii) Verbal rehearsal maintains information in STM and transfers information into LTM
            • STM is acoustically encoded but LTM is semantically encoded
              • MSM doesn't explain how information is re-encoded to transfer from STM to LTM
          • iii) LTM is described as a single store
            • Evidence (e.g Clive Wearing) suggests that there are separate stores fro procedural, semantic and episodic memories.
          • iv) STM and LTM are described as separate stores with information flowing in one direction from STM to LTM only
            • Research (e.g MIller) suggests that information from LTM flows back to STM in order to help us understand new information
            • STM and LTM may be more closly linked then MSM suggests
        • Research is based on intentional recall tasks
          • Everyday memory is oftern a result of incidental learning (info is stored as a concequence of experience rather than intent
          • Everyday memories are oftern not intentionally stored
      • Strengths
        • MSM marks predictions that can be tested in controlled situations
          • MSM allows scientific evidence to be obtained
          • There is a wealth of scientific evidence which supports the existence of a separate STM and LTM
        • MSM was the first systematic explanation of memory
          • Has enabled the development of theoretical understanding of memory
          • Therefore has historic importance
  • Words most recently presented, had not had time to decay and still in STM
    • This as known as recency effect

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