Environmental Studies Unit 4

  • Created by: sally
  • Created on: 19-06-13 17:43
an area of land used for grazing livestock
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a chemical that is used to kill pest species
2 of 103
an activity that can be carried out without making life more difficult for people in the future
3 of 103
an organism that produces high-energy food substances using light
4 of 103
food chain
a sequence of organisms arranged to show their feeding relationships and food energy flow
5 of 103
trophic level
a position in a food chain e.g. primary producer, secondary consumer
6 of 103
an animal that only eats plant food
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the stomach changer in which bacteria digest cellulose in ruminants
8 of 103
an organism that gains its food energy from other heterotrophs
9 of 103
an organism that eats plant and animal foods
10 of 103
the living organisms, physical processes and their interactions in a farming system
11 of 103
selective breeding
producing offspring from particular chosen parents, usually to produce offspring with desirable characteristics
12 of 103
genetic modification (GM)
the method of altering an organisms genetic makeup by artificially introducing genes from another organism, often of another species
13 of 103
limiting factor
an environmental factor present in insufficient amounts to allow a process to occur at a faster rate
14 of 103
living organisms
15 of 103
the combined movement of water into the atmosphere from the evaporation from surfaces and transpiration from leaves
16 of 103
solar insolation
sunlight landing on a surface
17 of 103
the 3D shape of the land surface
18 of 103
the direction something faces in terms of sunlight
19 of 103
tenant farmer
a farmer that rents land from the owner
20 of 103
a limit on the number or quantity of items e.g. milk productions
21 of 103
haber process
a chemical process used to manufacture ammonia from which nitrate fertilisers can be made
22 of 103
F1 hybrid
the first generation of offspring produced by breeding from two distinct true bredding varieties. all the offspring have the same combinations of characteristics
23 of 103
true breeding variety
a variety of selectively bred organisms where all members are genetically almost identical and produce similar offspring
24 of 103
asexual reproduction
production of new organisms using the genetic material from a single individual. the offspring are genetically identical to the parent
25 of 103
vegetative propagation
asexual reproduction
26 of 103
an artificial form of asexual reproduction
27 of 103
producing offspring by mating parents of two different breeds or varieties
28 of 103
hybrid vigour
the good health achieved by breeding between breeds that are not closely related. this reduces the risk of inbreeding and recessive gene diseases
29 of 103
the hybrid vigour produced by breeding between two organisms that are not closely related
30 of 103
a green revolution rice variety
31 of 103
green revolution
the agricultural changes since the mid 20th century, where high yielding cereal varieties were bred to increase food production
32 of 103
genetic engineering
the method of altering an organism's genetic makeup by artificially introducing genes from another organism, often of another species
33 of 103
the process of artificially transferring genetic material from one organism into an individual of another species
34 of 103
horizontal gene transfer
the transfer of genetic material between organisms without normal breeding taking place
35 of 103
a group of plant hormones
36 of 103
a group of plant hormones
37 of 103
a chemical that stimulates fruit ripening
38 of 103
bovine somatotropin - an animal hormone used to stimulate milk production
39 of 103
anabolic steroid hormones
a female or male hormone used to increase livestock gross growth efficiency
40 of 103
endemic pests
a pest that is normally present
41 of 103
epidemic pests
a pest that is not normally a problem but may become a serious pest when the population suddenly increases
42 of 103
the growth of a single type of crop, usually over a large area
43 of 103
the property of a substance dissolving in lipids
44 of 103
organochlorine pesticides
persistent insecticide group e.g. DDT (most are now banned)
45 of 103
a substance that is absorbed and transported throughout an organism
46 of 103
organophosphate pesticides
insecticide group e.g. parathion, malathion
47 of 103
pyrethroid pesticides
insecticide group
48 of 103
a micro-organism that is carried by livestock which, if transferred to humans, causes disease
49 of 103
crop rotation
the practice of growing a different crop in a field on a cycle of three, four or five years
50 of 103
material added to the soil surface e.g. shredded crop waste to inhibit weed growth
51 of 103
a chemical released by an organism that changes the behaviour of other members of the same species, especially to attract a mate
52 of 103
the colloidal material in soil that is the end product of the decomposition of dead organic matter
53 of 103
a plant nutrient needed in large amounts e.g. N, P, K
54 of 103
a plant nutrient needed in small amounts
55 of 103
extensive agriculture
agriculture where the maximum total yield is achieved by distributing the inputs over the total available area. inputs are usually low
56 of 103
intensive agriculture
farming where high yields are achieved by using large inputs per unit area
57 of 103
universal soil loss equation
58 of 103
cultivation by turning the soil e.g. by ploughing
59 of 103
marshall plan
a US scheme after WWII to provide food aid to europe
60 of 103
set aside
farmland that has been taken out of production and is not cultivated but is kept in a condition where it could be farmed again
61 of 103
environmentally sensitive areas
62 of 103
Countryside Stewardship Scheme
a scheme where farmers could get grants for a range of activities that benefited the environment or improved amenity value for the public
63 of 103
environmental stewardship scheme
64 of 103
group of invertebrates with jointed limbs and an exoskeleton, including crabs, lobsters and shrimps
65 of 103
invertebrate organisms with a hard shell; including oysters, clams, mussels and squid
66 of 103
primitive photosynthetic plant like organisms
67 of 103
free floating photosynthetic organisms that drift with the water currents
68 of 103
algal blooms
the rapid growth of an algae population
69 of 103
photic layer
the water layer into which light can penetrate
70 of 103
maximum sustainable yield
the greatest amount that can be sustainably harvested
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fishing above the MSY
72 of 103
living near the water surface e.g. herring and tuna
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living on the seabed e.g. cod and plaice
74 of 103
the non-target organisms that are caught when fishing
75 of 103
the artificial production of aquatic organisms, including fish farming
76 of 103
climax community
the community of organisms at the end of primary succession
77 of 103
the northern confier forest biome found in canada, scandinavia, russia
78 of 103
trees that produce their seeds in cones e.g. pine, spruce, fir
79 of 103
the pores on a leaf through which gases are exchanged and transpiration water is lost
80 of 103
the process of shedding all leaves at the same time
81 of 103
the layer of tree vegetation beneath the canopy layer
82 of 103
the region of the earth within 22.5 degrees of the equator, where the sun is overhead at some time during the year
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primary producer
the energy captured during photosynthesis
84 of 103
the uppermost layer of vegetation in a forest
85 of 103
layering as seen with vegetation layers in forests
86 of 103
net primary productivity - the energy captured by an autotroph during photosynthesis but which has not been used in respiration
87 of 103
the process where trees are cut to ground level every few years. the regrowth produces long narrow stems
88 of 103
the process whereby trees are cut back to 4 to 8ft above the ground every few years. the regrowth produces long, narrow stems
89 of 103
forest parks
forestry commission forest areas that are open to the public for recreational use
90 of 103
national forest
an area in the east midlands of England where woodland creation and countryside management is being carried out for the benefit of the local communities and wildlife
91 of 103
community forest
a deliberately managed and planted forest for the benefit of the community
92 of 103
programme for belize (PfB)
independent conservation organisation that manages the rio bravo conservation and management area in belize, central america
93 of 103
forestry stewardship council (FSC)
an organisation that certifies sustainable forestry operations
94 of 103
planned obsolescene
the deliberate plan to make items that do not last as long as they could have, usually for commercial gain
95 of 103
ecological footprint
the area of the earths surface that is needed to provide the resources that are used by the human population and to deal with the wastes produced
96 of 103
ecological debt
this is the concept that we are exploiting the planet at a faster rate than it can replace the resources we have used
97 of 103
ecological debt day
this is the day on which it is estimated that we have used up the whole years worth of resources
98 of 103
carbon footprint
this is the part of an ecological footprint caused by the release of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases
99 of 103
a measure of the biological productivity of an area
100 of 103
land remediation relief
companies can claim tax refunds on money spent cleaning up containment land
101 of 103
enhanced capital allowances
companies can claim tax refunds on money spent on better equipment such as low emission vehicles and equipment that saves energy or water
102 of 103
income tax
if an employer pays towards an employee's public transport season ticket then this is taxed as a perk of the job, but if a free parking place is provided at work this is not. this makes public transport less competitive
103 of 103

Other cards in this set

Card 2




a chemical that is used to kill pest species

Card 3




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Card 4




Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


food chain


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