Environmental Studies Unit 4 Definitions

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  • Created on: 19-02-18 12:32
Canopy
the cover formed by the leaves of upper branches of the trees in a forest
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Carbon Sequestation
a natural process by which carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere and held in a solid and liquid form
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Cellulose
an insoluble substance which is the main constituent of plant cell walls and of vegetable fibres such as cotton
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Climax Community
a stable, mature community in a successive series which has reached equilibrium after having evolved through stages and adapted
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Community Forest
local community plays a significant role in forest management and land use decison making
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Coppicing
cutback of a tree or shrub to ground level periodically to stimulate growth
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Deciduous
a tree or shrub which shed its leaves annually
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Evapotranspiration
when water evaporates form soil, land and vegetation
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Forest Parks
an area of British forest that has been made into a park for the public to enjoy
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Forest Stewardship Council
international and non- for- profit certification and labelling system to label wood products which have been sustainably grown
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Forestry Commission
non- ministerial government department responsible for forestry in England and Scotland
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Maximum Sustainable Yield
the size of a natural population at which it produces a maximum rate of increase, typically half of the carrying capacity
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National Forest
an area of forest that is preserved by the government from private exploitation and is only harvested under supervision
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NPP (Net Primary Production)
rate at which plants in a ecosystem produce net useful chemical energy
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Pollarding
pruning system in which the upper branches of a tree are removed, promoting a dense head of foliage and branches
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Primary Productivity
rate which energy is converted by photosynthetic + chemosynthetic autotrophs to organic substances
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Stomata
a tiny opening or pore found in leaves that is used for gas exchange
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Stratification
vertical layering of vegetation
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Taiga
the swampy coniferous forests of high northern latitudes
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Temperate
forest (deciduous or coniferous) in a region of mild temperatures
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Tropics
forest located between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn
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Understory
an underlying layer of vegetation- located between canopy and ground cover
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Biomass
the total quantity or weight of organisms in a given area or volume
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Bycatch
catching non- target species e.g. dolphins, turtles
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Carrying Capacity
the number of people, animals or crops which a region can support without environmental degradation
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Crustaceans
an invertebrate with an exoskeleton or a shell, can be aquatic
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Demersal
live or feed near the bottom of seas or lakes
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Molluscs
an invertebrate which has a soft body and a head and foot region
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No Take Zone
a marine protected area, where no fishing, mining, dredging + nuclear weapons are allowed
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Overfishing
a form of overexploitation where fish stocks are reduced to below acceptable levels
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Pelagic
live or feed in the open sea
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Photic Layer
the layer where light can penetrate
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Phytoplankton
autotrophic, microscopic organisms which photosynthesise
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Plankton
organisms which include bacteria, algae + drifting or floating animals who inhibit pelagic zones of oceans, seas and freshwater
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Shellfish
exoskeleton- bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food
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Upwelling
a process in which deep, cold water rises towards the surface, bringing nutients with it
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Zooplankton
heterotrophic, microscopic organisms which eat phytoplankton
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Algae
large, diverse group of photosysnthetic organisms
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Algal Bloom
rapid growth of microscopic algae in water, often resulting in coloured scum on the surface
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Abiotic Factor
non- living environmental factor
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Aquaculture
fish farming
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Turbidity
cloudiness or haziness of a fluid
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Affluence
the state of having a great deal of money
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Altruism
the principle or practice of unselfish concern for or devotion to the welfare of others
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per capita
for each person, in relation to people taken individually
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Agenda 21
non- binding, voluntarily implemented action plan of the United Nations,regarding sustainable development
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NGO (Non- Governmental Organisation)
a non- profit organisation that operates independently from the government
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Consumption
the action of using up a resource
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Sustainability
avoidance of the depletion of natural resources in order to maintain an ecological balance
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Autotroph
an organism that produces complex compounds form simple substances present in its surroundings, such as sunlight
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Carnivore
an animal that gets food form killing and eating other animals
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Cellulose
the substance that makes up most of a plant's cell wall
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Chemoautotroph
uses inorganic energy sources to feed itself, such as bacteria
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Food Chain
shows how each living thing gets food, and how nutrients and energy are passed from creature to creature
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Herbivore
an animal that gets its energy from eating plants
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Heterotroph
an organism that ingests or absorbs organic carbon in order to be able to produce energy + synthesise compounds
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Omnivore
a animal that gets its food from eating other animals and plants
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Photoautotroph
organisms that carry out photosynthesis
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Rumen
the first stomach of a ruminant, which receives food from the oesophagus + partly digests it
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Trophic Level
the levels of a food chain
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Agroecosystem
the living organisms, physical processes and their interactions in a farming system
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Anabolic Steroid
testosterone detrivative that promotes the growth + repair of various tissues in the body
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Artificial Insemination
deliberate introduction of sperm in to a female's uterus or cervix for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy
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Asexual Reproduction
type of reproduction by which offspring arise form a single organism
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Auxins
plant hormone produced in the stem that promotes growth + cell elongation
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BST (Bovine Somatotropin)
metabolic protein hormone used to increases milk production in dairy cows
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Cloning
process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals
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Crossbreeding
producing an animal or plant by mating or hybridising 2 different species, breeds or varieties
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Ethylene
important natural plant hormone, used in agriculture to force the ripening of fruits
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F1 Hybrid
first initial generation of offspring of distinctly differently different parental types
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Gene Pool
the stock of different genes in an interbreeding population
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Genetic Engineering
direct manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology
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Genetic Modification
direct manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology
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Gibberelins
plant hormones that regulate growth + influence various developmental processes including germination
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Heterosis
the improved or increased function of any biological quality in hybrid offspring
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Hybrid
the offspring of 2 animals or plants of different breeds, varieties, species or genera
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Hybrid Vigor
the tendency of a cross- bred individual to show qualities superior to those of both parents
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Inbreeding
breed from closely related animals, over many generations
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Micropropagation
the propagation of plants by growing plants in tissue culture and then planting them out
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Monoculture
the cultivation of a single crop in a given area
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Selective Breeding
process by which humans use animal + plant breeding to selectively choose which animals and plants which have the most desirable traits and breed them
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Transgenics
a gene or genetic material that has been transferred by genetic engineering from one organism to another
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Vegetative Propagation
form of asexual reproduction in a plant- only one plant is involved- offspring are genetically identical to the parent
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Antibiotic
drug used to treat or prevent bacterial infection, works by killing bacteria and preventing them from reproducing + spreading
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Bioaccumulation
accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism
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Biomagnification
increasing concentration of a substance, such as toxic chemical, in tissues of organisms at higher levels of the food chain
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Biotic Factor
living environmental factor
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Crop Rotation
used to control pests + diseases that can become established in the soil over time
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Edaphic
of, produced by, or influenced by the soil
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Endemic Pest
a pest that occurs regularly in in a particular area
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Epidemic Pest
a pest that develops and spreads rapidly to many areas
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Eutrophication
when environment becomes enriched with nutrients, can become a problem in marine habitats as it causes algal blooms
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Haber Process
combines nitrogen from the air with hydrogen derived mainly from natural gas into ammonia
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Humus
the organic compound of the soil, formed by the decomposition of leaves and other plant material by microorganisms
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Leachate
water that has percolated through a solid and leached out some of its constituents
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Limiting Factor
environmental conditions that limit growth, abundance, or distribution of an organism or a population
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Liposoluble
soluble in fats or fat solvents
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Macronutrient
a type of food required in large amounts in the diet
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Micronutrient
a type of food required in small amounts in the diet
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Mulch
material spread around or over a plant to enrich or insulate the soil
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Pesticide
any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any pest
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Specificity
the narrowness of the range of substances which an antibody or any other agent acts or is effective
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Systemic
taken up by the plant and transported to all tissues
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Tillage
the preparation of land for growing crops
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Toxicity
the degree to which a substance (a toxin or poison) can harm humans and animals
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Transpiration
evaporation of water from vegetation
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Zoonose
infectious diseases of animals that can be naturally transmitted to humans
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Deforestation
the action of clearing an area of trees
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Infiltration
when water first enters soil or rock from the ground
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Multicropping
practice of growing 2 or more crops in the same piece of land in different growing seasons- form of polyculture
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Ped
aggregates of soil particles found as a result of pedogenic processes
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Persistence
length of time a compound stays in the environment, once introduced
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Ploughing
tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or farm soil
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Overgrazing
when livestock graze so heavily that the vegetation is damaged and the ground becomes liable to erosion
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Soil Conditioning
a substance produced form organic matter that helps to improve the soil's properties, adding slow releasing nutrients
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***** Cropping
cultivation in which different crops are sown in alternate strips to prevent soil erosion
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Terracing
piece of sloped plain that has been cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms
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Topography
the arrangement of the natural + artificial physical features of an area
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USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation)
designed as a method to predict average annual soil loss caused by sheet + rill erosion
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Windbreaks
a plantation, usually made up of rows of trees or shrubs planted in a way as to provide shelter from wind and to protect soil from erosion
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Environmental Stewardship Scheme
agri- environmental scheme run by DEFRA which pays money to farmers if they have an eco- friendly farm
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Intensive Agriculture
agricultural production system that uses large inputs of labour, fertilisers and capital, relative to the land being farmed
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Extensive Agriculture
agricultural production system that uses small inputs of labour, fertilisers and capital, relative to the land being farmed
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Green Revolution
an intensive plan of the 1960s to increase crop yields in LEDCs by introducing higher - yield strains of plant + new fertilisers
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Pasture
land covered with grass and other low plants suitable for grazing animals, especially cattle or sheep
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Quota
a limited or fixed number on things
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Biocapacity
capacity of a given biologically productive area to generate an on- going supply of renewable resources + absorb spill over wastes
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Carbon Footprint
the amount of carbon dioxide released in to the atmosphere as a result of the activities of an individual, organisation or community
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Ecological Footprint
measure of human demand for nature
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Ecological Debt
level of resource consumption and waste discharge by a population in excess of locally sustainable natural production + assmilative capacity
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Ecological Debt Day
calculated illustrative calendar date on which humanity's resource and carbon consumption for the year exceeds Earth's capacity to regenerate resources next year
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Planned Obsolesence
a policy of planning or designing a product with an artificially limited useful life, so it will become obsolete after a certain period of time
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

a natural process by which carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere and held in a solid and liquid form

Back

Carbon Sequestation

Card 3

Front

an insoluble substance which is the main constituent of plant cell walls and of vegetable fibres such as cotton

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

a stable, mature community in a successive series which has reached equilibrium after having evolved through stages and adapted

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

local community plays a significant role in forest management and land use decison making

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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