The population: resource balance
The Population: resource balance.
Affluence: the level of richness or poverty.
Per Capita: per person, such as the per capita of resources or waste production.
Altruism: acting for the benefit of all or others.
Pasture: land used for grazing livestock.
Pesticide: chemical used to kill pest species.
Sustainable: an activity that can be carried out without depleting resources and takes the future into consideration.
Photoautotroph: organism that produces high-energy food substances using light. eg photosynthetic organisms.
Food chain: sequence of organisms arranged to show their feeding relationships and food energy flow. Primary producer...etc
Trophic level: a position in a food chain.
Herbivore: plant eating animal.
Genetic engineering: the method of altering an organims genetic makeup by artificially introducing genes from another organism/species.
Transgenics: process of artificially transferring genetic material from one organism into an individual of another speices.
Horizontal gene transfer: transfer of genetic material between organisms withought normal breeding taking place.
Auxin: a group of plant hormones.
Gibberelin: a group of plant hormones.
Ethylene: chemical that stimulates fruit ripening.
BST: an animal hormone used to stimulate milk production.
Rumen: the stomach chamber in which bacteria digest cellulose in ruminants. eg cows and sheep.
Vegetative propagation: asexual reproduction.
Cloning: an artificial form of asexual reproduction.
Crossbreeding: production of offspring by mating parents of two different breeds or varieties.
Hybrid vigour: the good health achieved by breeding between breeds that are not closely related. Reducing the risk of inbreeding and recessive gene disease.
Carnivore: organisms that gains food energy from other heterotrophs.
Omnivore: and animal that eats both meat and plant. eg pig.
Tenant farmer: a farmer that rents land from the owner.
Quota: a limit on the number or quantity of items.
Haber process: a chemical process used to manufacture ammonia from which nitrate fertilisers can be made.
F1 hybrid: first generation of offspring produced by breeding from two distinct true-breeding varieties. All offspring have the same combinations of characteristics.
True-breeding variety: variety of selectively bred organism where all members are almost genetically identical and produce similar offspring.
Asexual reproduction: production of new organims using the gentic material from a single individual.
Heterosis: the hybrid vigour produced by breeding between two organisms that are not closely related.
IR8: a green revolution rice variety.
Green Revolution: agricultural changes since mid 20th century, where high yeilding cereal varieties were bred to increase food production.
Anabolic steroid hormones: a hormone used to increase livestock gross growth efficiency.
Endemic pest: a pest that is normally present.
Epidemic pest: a pest that is not normally a problem but may become a serious pest when the population suddenly increases.
Monoculture: the growth of a single type of crop, usually over a large area.
Liposoluble: property of a substance dissolving in lipids.
Organochlorine pesticides: persistent insecticide group, eg DDT.
Systemic: a substance that is absorbed and transported throughout an organism.
Organophosphate pesticides: insecticide group, eg parathion.
Pyrethroid pesticides: insecticide group.
Agriculture continued further....
Zoonose: a micro-organism that is carried by livestock which, if transferred to humans, causes disease.
Crop rotation: the practice of growing a different crop in a field on a cycle of three, four or five years.
Mulch: material added to the soil surface.
Pheromone: a chemical released by an organism that changes the behaviour of other members of the same species, especially to attract a mate.
Humus: the colloidal material in the soil that is the end product of the decomposition of dead organic matter.
Macronutrient: a plant nutrient needed in large quantities.
Micronutrient: a plant nutrient needed in small quantities.
Last of the agriculture
Extensive agriculture: where the maximum total yield is achieved by distributing the inputs over the total available area, inputs are usually low.
Intensive agriculture: where high yields are achieved by using large inputs per unit area.
USLE:universal soil loss equation.
Tillage: cultivation by turning the soil.
Marshall plan: a US scheme after WW2 to provide food aid to europe.
Set aside: farmland that has been taken out of production and is not cultivated but is kept in a condition where it could be farmed again.
ESA: environmentally sensitive areas.
Countryside stewardship scheme: a scheme where farmers could get grants for a range of activities that benefited the environment or improved amenity value for the public.
Aquatic food production Systems
ESS: environmental stewardship scheme.
Aquatic food production systems
Crustaceans: group of invertebrates with joined limbs and an exoskeleton, eg crab and lobsters.
Molluscs: invertebrates with a hard shell, eg clams and oysters.
Algae: primitive photosynthetic plant-like organisms.
Phytoplanktonic: free-floating photosynthetic organisms that drift with the waters currents.
Algal blooms: the rapid growth of an algae population.
Photic layer: the layer of water into which sunlight can penetrate.
Maximum sustainable yield: the greatest amount that can be sustainably harvested.
Aquatic food production systems
Overfishing: fishing above the maximum sustainable yield.
Pelagic: living near the water surface, eg tuna.
Demersal: living on the seabed eg cod.
Bycatch: non target organisms that are caught when fishing.
Aquaculture: artifical production of aquatic organisms including fish farming.
Climax community: community of organims at the end of primary succession.
Taiga: northern conifer forest biome found in canada, scandinavia and russia.
Conifers: trees that produce their seeds in cones.
Stomata: pores on a leaf through which gases are exchanged and transiration water is lost.
Temperate: a temperate climate has summers and winter of roughly equal length and rarely has temperature extremes.
Deciduous: the process of shedding all leaves at the same time.
Understorey: layer of tree vegetation beneath the canopy layer.
Tropical: the region of the earth within 22.5 degrees of the equator where the sun is overhead at some time during the day.
Primary productivity: the energy campured during photosynthesis.
Canopy: uppermost layer of vegetation in a forest.
Stratification: layering, as seen with layering in forests.
NPP: net primary productivity- the energy captured by an autrotroph during photosynthesis but which has not been used in respiration.
Coppicing: the process where trees are cut to ground level every few years.
Pollarding: the process whereby trees are cut back to 4-8ft above the ground every few years.
Forest parks: forestry commission forest areas that are open to the public for recreational use.
National forest: an area in the east midlands of england where woodland creation and countryside managment is being carried out for the benefit of the local communities and wildlife.
Community forest: a deliberately managed and planted forest for the benefit of the community.
Programme for Belize: independent conservation organisation that manages the Rio Bravo Conservation and management area in Belize, Central America.
Forestry Stewardship Council: an organisation that certifies sustainable forestry operations.
Planned obsolescence: the deliberate plan to make items that do not last as long as they could have.
Ecological Footprint: the area of the earths surface needed to provide the resources that are used byt he human population and to deal with the waste products.
Ecological debt: concept that we are exploiting the planet at a faster rate than it can replace the resources we have used.
Ecological Debt day: the day on which it is estimated that we have used up the whole years worth of resources.
Carbon footprint: part of the ecological footprint caused byt he release of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.
Biocapacity: measure of the biological productivity of an area.