Biology, Module 4

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  • ECOLOGY IN THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT
    • DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANISMS
      • Ecosystem - made up of all plants and animals living there and their surroundings.
        • Natural Ecosystem -    (large biodiversity)  eg. native woodlands and lakes
        • Artificial Ecosystem - (poor biodiversity) eg. forestry plantations and fish farms
          • Humans deliberately keep and protect only one species and remove any other organisms that would compete with it and lower the yield.
          • Created by humans for the benefit of humans
        • Biodiversity -   the range of different living organisms in a habitat.
      • Habitat- where a plant or animal lives
        • Zonation - gradual change in species distribution across a habitat.
      • Community - animals and plants living in a garden
        • Population -  number of a particular plant or animal present in the community
      • Transect line - a long length of string is laid across an area such as a path or sea shore.
      • Quadrat - at regular intervals the organisms in a square frame are counted (for animals) or the percentage of (plants) covered.
        • This data can be displayed in a kite diagram.
      • Some animals are trapped, for example, using pitfall traps. They are marked in a harmless way then released. Traps are used a few days later. The number of marked and unmarked animals caught in the traps are recorded.
        • Population size = number in 1st sample x number in 2nd sample / number in 2nd sample previously marked
  • PHOTOSYNTHESIS
    • THE CHEMISTRY OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS
      • Photosynthesis = water + carbon  ---> oxygen + glucose
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      •  
      • Glucose -  (simple sugar)
        • can be used in respiration, releasing energy
        • converted into cellulose to make cell walls
        • converted into proteins for  growth and repair
        • converted into starch, fats & oils for storage
          • Starch is used for storage since it is insoluble.
      • Photosynthesis is a two-stage procress
        • water is split up by light energy releasing oxygen gas and hydrogen ions
          • carbon dioxide gay combines
      • Historical understanding of photosynthesis
    • RATE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS
      • can be increased by:
        • more carbon dioxide
        • more light
        • higher temperature - increases enzyme action
      • Photosynthesis will only take place during daytime (in the light). However, plants respire so it releases energy at all times.
        • Plants respire at all times by taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide.
    • Photosynthesis relies on light, temperature & carbon dioxide..a lack of these will affect the rate of it (limiting factors).
    • LEAVES
      • Upper Epidermis - transparent to allow light through
      • Cuticle (wax layer) - waterproof, less water loss
      • Palisade layer - contains chloroplasts
      • Spongy mesophyll layer - contains air spaces so they can respire & photosynthesis
      • Guard cell - open + closes the stoma
        • Stoma (pore) - allows CO2 in and H2O out
      • Lower epidermis
      • Large surface area = as much light as possible
      • Thin so gases can diffuse through easily
  • LEAVES
    • Upper Epidermis - transparent to allow light through
    • Cuticle (wax layer) - waterproof, less water loss
    • Palisade layer - contains chloroplasts
    • Spongy mesophyll layer - contains air spaces so they can respire & photosynthesis
    • Guard cell - open + closes the stoma
      • Stoma (pore) - allows CO2 in and H2O out
    • Lower epidermis
    • Large surface area = as much light as possible
    • Thin so gases can diffuse through easily
  • DIFFUSION AND OSMOSIS
    • DIFFUSION
      • Diffusion - net movement of particles in a gas or liquid from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
      • The rate of diffusion is not a fixed quantity. It can increased by:
        • short distance for the molecule to travel
        • steeper concentration  gradient
        • greater surface area for the molecules to diffuse from, or into
    • OSMOSIS
      • Osmosis - movement of water across a partically - permeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration.
      • It's a type of diffusion
  • TRANSPORT IN PLANTS
    • XYLEM AND PHLOEM CELLS
      • Xylem and Phloem are made up of specialized cells. Both are types of tissues and are continuous from the roots, through the stem and into the leaf.
      • Form Vascular Bundles
      • XYLEM
        • carry water & minerals from the roots to the leaves and therefore involved in transpiration.
      • PHLOEM
        • carry food substances such as sugars up and down stems to grow and storage tissues - (translocation).
  • DECAY
    • Decay - when dead animals and plants break down
      • Ideal conditions for decay:
        • tempetature
        • water (lots)
        • competition with oxygen (lots)
      • Detritus - dead and decaying plants/animals
      • Detritvores - animals that break down detritus into smaller pieces
      • Saprophyte - feed on dead / decaying
      • Aerobic Bacteria - more oxygen (+respiration)and more decay
  • FARMING
    • Intensive Farming - producing large crops yields cheaply
    • Biological Controls - when they get other animals to eat animals
    • Organic Farming - use biological control
      • seen as healthier
  • PLANTS NEED MINERALS
    • USE OF MINERALS
      • Plants need minerals, such as:
        • Nitrates, to make proteins, which plants use for cell growth
        • Phosphates, which are involved in respiration and growth
        • Potassium compounds, which are involved in respiration and photosynthesis
      • Elements from soil minerals are used to produce useful compounds:
        • Nitrogen is used to produce amino acids, which combine to form a variety of proteins
        • Phosphorus is used to make DNA, which contains the plants genetic code, and cell membranes
        • Potassium is used to help enzyme action in photosynthesis and respiration; enzymes speed up chemical reactions.
        • Maganesium is used to make chlorophyll, which is essential for photosynthesis
      • Mineral uptake involves active transport, rather than diffusion or osmosis.

Comments

lisa linsdell

A well detailed mind map, be careful of the odd spelling and typing errors.

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