DSM A LEVEL PSYCHOLOGY

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  • DSM
    • BASICS
      • Classifies disorders into different types
      • Symptoms of disorders are listed so they can be recognized
        • Physical changes
          • e.g. Brain activity and hormone levels
          • Behavioural changes
            • e.g. shaking
        • Cognitive changes
          • e.g. hallucinations
        • Affective changes
          • e.g. mood swings
    • DSM-I (1952)
      • Common system of diagnosis which allowed psychiatrists to communicate
      • First published in USA 1917
        • Contained statistics gathered from mental hospitals
      • Became a manual for military doctors
        • Dealing with effects of battle like shock and trauma
      • Had 102 diagnostic categories
        • Split into two types: those brought on by some sort of brain damage (drugs, shock, injury) and those formed by early experience, notably psychoses and neuroses
        • Freud's psycho dynamic theory dominated this DSM's diagnostic classifications
          • The psychodynamic approach was challenged in the 1950s and '60s
            • especially by learning theorists like Albert Bandura and radical psychologists like Thomas Szasz
              • argued that mental illness was a "myth
    • DSM-II (1968)
      • Was revised in 1974
        • In the 1970s, confidence in this edition of the DSM was shaken
          • Rosenhan's 1973 study exposed DSM-II as an unreliable tool, because it could not "tell the sane from the insane"
          • Spitzer & Fleiss' 1974 study compared 18 investigations into the the reliability of DSM-II
            • showed psychiatrists coming up with different diagnoses for the same symptoms. They concluded
        • offensive diagnosis of homosexuality removed, thanks to pressure from gay rights activists
      • The psychodynamic approach was challenged in the 1950s and '60s
        • especially by learning theorists like Albert Bandura and radical psychologists like Thomas Szasz
          • argued that mental illness was a "myth
      • Some Freudian terminology was removed
        • more emphasis on the "ordinary" mental illness that people might suffer from in everyday life
      • Homosexuality was no longer a "sociopathic disturbance" but was Homosexuality was no longer a "sociopathic disturbance"
        • classified as a sexual deviance
      • Has 182 disorders
    • DSM-III (1980)
      • Revised 1987
      • Turned its back on Freud and embraced a view of mental illness based on observation and biological evidence
        • Was called a 'fateful turning point in the history of the American psychiatric profession'
      • Was popular and used widely
        • Created a common language of diagnosis in mental health
          • this standardised language produced a boom in research into mental health in the '80s and '90s
      • Number of diagnoses went up to 256 and up to 292 in 198
      • Man in charge of DSM-III was Robert Spitzer
        • His research had criticized DSM and removed homosexuality from the previous version
        • He criticized DSM-III saying that it caused the medicalization of 20-30% of the population who may not have has any serious mental porblems
    • DSM-IV (1994)
      • 297 diagnostic categories
      • Change the way mental disorders were described by putting them on 5 axes.
        • The first axis- psychiatric diagnoses-and the other axes considered things like   personality problems,  general medical conditions,  environmental stress and "global functioning"
      • Attempted to be less reductionist and more holistic
        • Looking at the patients complete health rather than some symptoms
    • DSM-5 (2013)
      • No more axes
        • Critics said these were artificial and made it hard to draw links between different symptoms
      • 157 diagnostic categories
      • Autistic spectrum disorder has become just one category. The old categories of autism have been merged together
        • The same has been done with  schizophrenia spectrum disorder
      • Childhood Bipolar Disorder has been replaced by a more general  Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD)
      • changes to DSM-5 reflect changes in society
        • e.g. Dementia is a growing problem now that people live longer and DSM-5 reclassifies this as a  disorder and separates  major dementia and mild dementia to encourage doctors to diagnose it early
      • The offensive phrase "mental retardation” is finally out of the DSM

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