A2 evidence

  • Created by: evievie
  • Created on: 19-02-17 14:04
View mindmap
  • Clinical Psychology Evidence-Schizophrenia
    • Classification systems
      • DSM
        • Kim-Cohen: good validity in the DSM if multiple data sources were used
        • Goldstein: found inter-rater reliability in the DSM for patients with schizophrenia
        • Brown et al: overall reliability in DSM but some issues with boundaries
        • The use questionnaires and interviews used to study the validity and reliability of the DSM can lack validity
      • ICD
        • Jakobson et al: concluded ICD gave a reliable diagnosis of schizophrenia, as it showed good agreement with a second diagnosis using a different tool
        • Pihlajamaa et al: found that generally when the ICD is used the diagnosis matches a diagnosis given by a different system
        • Hiller: compared the ICD with the DSM and found the ICD gave a higher level of reliability
    • Biological explantions
      • Neurotransmitters
        • Randrup and Munkvard: raised dopamine in rats, became more aggressive
        • Carlsson et al: those with Sz are more sensitive to dopamine
        • Alpert and Friedhoff: some patients show no improvement after taking dopamine antagonists
      • Genetics
        • Gottesman and Shields: MZ twins had a higher concordance rate (58%) than DZ twins (17%)
        • Harrison and Owen: up to 6 different genes may be responsible for causing the disorder
    • Non-biological explanations
      • Social Causation
        • Kirkbride et al: less social connectedness were more likely to develop psychosis
        • Cooper: Sz tends to come from childhood rather than economic class
    • Biological treatments
      • Drugs
        • Meltzer et al: well established drugs Sz symptoms than placebo
        • Carlsson et al: built on strong biological evidence
    • Non-biological treatments
      • CBT
        • Hoffman et al: support in reducing symptoms such as anxiety and anger
        • Time consuming
        • Relies on people being able to think clearly


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Health and clinical psychology resources »