Clinical Psychology (Schizophrenia)

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  • Created by: EliseJ
  • Created on: 19-02-18 12:30
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  • Clinical Psychology
    • Background
      • focusing on understanding, diagnosing + treating mental illnesses/disorders
        • 'Abnormal' behaviours
      • Use systematic tools of diagnosis like ICD-10 + DSM5
        • DSM IV = free from bias - behaviours objective + agreed by practitioners
        • Reliable = diagnosis' must be reliable
          • Beck et al(1961) = 153 pps to diagnose - two clinicians had 54% concordance
          • Lack reliability= different cultures/ classification sytems
            • Cooper et al(1972) - showed US + UK psychiatrists video to make diagnosis = US 2x schizophrenia UK 2x = depression
      • Helping families to cope with people facing mental illnesses
      • 4 D's: deviance, danger, distress, dysfunction
      • scientific theory - prevent/understand psychologically based distress or dysfunction
    • Schizophrenia
      • thoughts that are often 'split' from reality
      • Positive + Negative symptoms
        • Positive = added on behaviour to normal behaviour
          • E.G. hallucinations, thought insertion
        • Negative = behaviours that take away from normal behaviour
          • E.G. social avoidance, lack of self care
      • Biological Explanations
        • Excess Dopamine in receptors
          • Treatment = Clozapine which reduces dopamine levels, reduce negative symptoms
        • Genetics - increased chance if relative had
        • Brain structure = asymmetrical higher risk - amygdala smaller on left than the right (Young et al)
        • Enlarged ventricles
      • Psychological/ Environmental Explanations
        • Crowded City life increases stress
        • Lower social class or economic situation
        • Frith (1979) = disruption attention filter mechanism - thought disturbance of schizophrenia
        • Operant conditioning= schizophrenic- social cues been inappropriate so stop attending social cues and focus on inappropriate social cues
      • Treatments
        • Drug Therapy
          • Antipsychotic drugs = reduce amount of dopamine - Phenothiazine block dopamine receptors, reduce positive symptoms
          • 1950s = Chlorpromazine - sedate person + reduce frequency of hallucinations
        • Group therapy
          • Look at environment around patient - provide environment where patients can resume responsible place in society

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