Biology

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  • Created by: Joanne
  • Created on: 16-06-13 13:34
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  • DNA in Science and technology
    • UNIT 2
      • DNA replication
        • Meiosis
          • Sexual reproduction
          • Gametes have haploid number of chromasomes
            • gives diploid number of chromasomes to offspring
          • Crossing over
            • chromatids pair up and parts of the chromatids swap over - the chromatids have the same genes but a different combination of alleals
              • Causes variation
        • Mitosis
          • Cell cycle
            • Interphase
              • DNA helicase brakes bonds between DNA
                • DNA copies are made
                • Free nucleotides join to make 2 Strands of DNA
              • DNA copies are made
            • Prophase
              • Chromasomes condense - Short and fat
              • Centrioles move to edge of the cell
              • Nuclear envolope brakes down
            • Metaphase
              • Chromasomes line up
              • They become attached to the spindle by the centromere
            • Telophase
              • A nuclear envolope forms around the grops of chromatids
            • Anaphase
              • Centromeres seperate pulling chromatids to opposite ends of the cell
          • Two genetically Identical daughter cells
    • UNIT 5
      • DNA Tecnology
        • Genetic fingerprinting
          • Used for paternaty tests and forensics
          • take DNA and run PCR then add a floressent tag
            • It is then run on the gel and the size of fragments can be compared
          • smaller fragments move faster and further
        • Genetic Sequenceing
          • Find out the sequance of a persons DNA and again see if they may develop different diseases
          • Uses DNA polymerase and ACGU primers
            • This creates lots of fragments that can be seen by running gel electropheris with UV light
        • Gene Probes
          • Complementary bases for a deasise - can tell wether someone will develop a deasise such as some cancers
            • This can lead some people to seek genetic councilling
        • Gene therapy
          • altering genes to treat genetic disorders and cancer
          • Somatic gene therapy
            • altering alleles in body cells
            • Doesn't affect offspring
            • Can be used to releve symptoms
          • Germ line therapy
            • altering the sex cells so that any offspring will not be affected
              • This is illegal
      • Recombinant DNA replication
        • PCR
          • 90 degrees brake hydrogen bonds
            • 50 degrees for primers to bind
              • 72 degrees for DNA polymerase to work
                • makes double DNA each time
        • Vector
          • restriction endonuclease to cut vector
            • DNA cut with same restriction endonuclease
              • Same sticky ends join and DNA ligase binds the two types of DNA together
      • Protein Synthsis
        • MRNA
          • Transcription of DNA bases
            • Single Stranded    ACGU
            • RNA polymerase attaches to the begging of the gene - brakes hydrogen bonds and uses it as a template to create MRNA
            • Introns are spliced
            • MRNA the detaches and moves to a ribosome where it attaches
        • TRNA
          • Translation Of DNA
            • TRNA with anticodons attach to complementary bases on the MRNA
            • Anticodons have Amino Acids joind which form protein with a specific code
        • Transcription factors
          • Oestrogen
            • Bind to complementary DNA and can supress or initiate transcription
          • siRNA
            • Cut up mRNA so it can no longer be transcribed
        • Mutation
          • Frame shift due to deleation
          • Subsitution of bases
            • Non- functioning proteins
              • Frame shift due to deleation
      • Steam cells
        • Totipotent
        • Can rapidly replicate themselves
    • UNIT 1
      • what is DNA?
        • Nitrogenous Bases - ATCG
        • Dioxyribose nuclaic acid
        • Polynucleotide
        • Double stranded
          • Hydrogen bonds
            • Double Helix
              • Polynucleotide
              • Linier in proteins
              • Shorter and coiled in prokariotic cells
        • Degenerate
          • there are more combinations of triplets than there are amino acids
        • Non-overlapping
          • Triplets do not share bases

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