Slides in this set
The digestive system is an interface with the
environment because food enters the body
The human digestive system is made up of a long muscular tube and glands.
These glands produce enzymes that break down large molecules
into smaller ones for absorption.…read more
Salivary Glands; Are near the mouth. They pass the enzymes
amylase which breaks down starch into maltose.
Oesophagus ; Carries food from the mouth to the stomach. Adapted
for transport than for digestion, as it's made of a thick muscular
Stomach; Is a muscular sac which produces enzymes. It stores and
digests food, and especially proteins, as it has glands that produce
enzymes. Other glands in the stomach produce mucus; this mucus
prevents the stomach being digested by its own enzymes.
Pancreas; a large gland below the stomach. It produces pancreatic juice. This
contains proteases to digest proteins, lipase to digest lipids and amylase to digest
Small Intestine; long muscular tube. further digestion in the small intestine by
enzymes that are produced by its wall and by glands that pour their secretions
into it. This adapts the small intestine for absorbing the products of digestion
into the bloodstream.
Large Intestine; Absorbs water, most of the water that is reabsorbed comes from the secretions of the
many digestive glands. The food within the large intestine therefore becomes drier and thicker in
consistency and forms faeces.…read more
Physical Breakdown Chemical Breakdown
If the food is too large, Chemical digestion
it is broken down into breaks down large,
smaller pieces by the insoluble molecules
teeth. This not only into smaller soluble
makes it possible to ones. It is carried out
ingest the food but by enzymes. Digestive
also provides a large enzymes function by
structure area for hydrolysis. Hydrolysis
chemical digestion. is the splitting up of
Food is churned by molecules by adding
the muscles in the water to the chemical
stomach wall and this bonds that hold them
also physically breaks together.
it up.…read more
Chemical Breakdown Enzymes
Proteases Break down proteins, ultimately to amino acids.
Carbohydrases Break down carbohydrates, ultimately to monosaccharides.
Lipases Break down lipids (fats and oils) into glycerol and fatty acids…read more
End of Digestion
Once the large food molecules have been hydrolysed into monosaccharide,
glycerol, fatty acids and amino acids, they are absorbed by various means from
the small intestine into the blood.
They are carried to different parts of the body and are
often built up again into large molecules, although
these are not necessarily of the same type as the
molecules from which they were derived.
These molecules are incorporated into body tissues and/or
used in processes within the body. This is called assimilation.…read more