The Development of Soul Music

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  • Development of Soul Music
    • 1947
      • Atlantic Records (known fr recordings of rhythm and blues, Jazz and Soul) is founded
    • 1950's USA
      • A time of racial segregation
      • Black rhythm and blues only played on black radio and released by independent record labels
    • 1952
      • Ray Charles signifies the birth of early soul
        • His version of soul is a return to the roots of black music. (emotional honesty, vocal intensity, call and response)
    • 1960
        • The label is set up in 1960. it gains a distribution deal with Atlantic records that gives artists a nation wide coverage.
        • Artists: Booker T and the MGs, Otis Reading, Wilson Pickett.
        • Aimed at black R&B audiences, with gospel influenced vocals and clean tight arrangements.
        • The label is aimed as much as white audiences as it is black audiences. It's recordings are much more commercial.
        • Artists: Marvin Gaye, Stevie Wonder, Diana Ross and the Supremes, Jackson 5.
    • 1964
      • Civil rights movement and Americas involvement in Vietnam War escalates.
      • Soul music is often about love, however it became more politically active and more protest songs were produced.
      • Motown distances itself from civil rights movement as its commercial interests are dependent on sales in the white community.
    • 1965
      • James Brown
        • He develops his signature groove that emphasized the downbeat, with heavy emphasis on the first beat of every measure to etch his distinctive sound, rather than the back beat that typified African American music.
        • The style signifies the arrival of early funk.
        • Funk uses a formidable rhythm sections, locking into tight "grooves" that were much more important than melodies or chord sequences.
    • Late 1960's
      • Philadelphia Soul emerges
        • This sub genre of soul is characterised by its polishes smoother sound with big string arrangements.
        • Artists - The O-Jays, The Spinners and The Stylistics.


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